Parts of traffic studies: Traffic studies include: Inventory of road traffic physical features Traffic stream characteristics- volume, speed, density, occupancy studies etc. Capacity studies of streets and intersections System usage studies- Travel time and delay, O-D survey Travel demand- home interview survey Road users cost- Value of travel time, vehicle operating cost Parking supply & demand studies Axle load survey Mass transit performance and usage studies Traffic accidents studies Environmental impact studies of transport 1.2. Traffic Volume Study: Traffic data are needed in research, planning, designing and regulation phases of traffic engineering and are also used in established priorities and schedules of traffic improvements. The traffic engineer must acquire general knowledge of traffic volume characteristics in order to measure and understand the magnitude, composition, and time and route distribution of volume for each area under his jurisdiction. 1.3.
As a result of this analysis the key structural components of the trailer chassis, which are affected by high values of stress and deflection due to the static loading conditions are identified. Wang and Rauch  conducted research on fatigue analysis and design optimization of a trailer hitch using the finite element method through Ansys software. The study involved testing the trailer hitch to conform within legal legislation and customer specifications. Locations of failure were identified init... ... middle of paper ... ...his study, such that the cost of fabrication could be reduced without compromising the fatigue strength. FEA and experimental fatigue tests were carried out to study the static and fatigue behaviour of the connections.
In order to gain a complete understanding of the physics that affect a car, it is necessary to conduct a study that examines all the aspects of physics in regard to acceleration, stopping, aerodynamics, speed, velocity and the list goes on. This paper has addressed the physics of what makes a car move and some of the forces that exist when a car is moving. Kinetic energy and friction play an important role in the movement of a vehicle. Similarly, drag will affect the movement of a vehicle through the surrounding air and is measured as the coefficient of drag. Lastly, the mass of an object times the velocity of the object will equal the momentum of the object.
Therefore, in addition to designing structures able to withstand static and fatigue loads, structures have to be designed to allow maximum energy absorption during impact. There are a lot of other criteria, however, in addition to a material being crashworthy, that need to be met before one can begin the use of a particular composite as a crash energy absorber in automobiles. Some of the primary criteria are low costs involved in their manufacture, t... ... middle of paper ... ...tem Solutions) laboratories, Peenya Industrial area, Bangalore. During preprocessing, stress vs. strain curves (obtained from the tensile tests) are entered while defining standard piecewise linear rate dependent plasticity material models. The material properties of Aluminium alloy (Al6063-T6), SMC (Sheet Moulding Compound) and GMT (Glass Material Thermoplastic) are extracted from different journal papers during literature review.
The extension of the paper requires electronic equipment like the sensors and actuated microcontrollers. Electronic equipment could fail at any time causing road accidents or traffic jams. So they have to be monitored continuously and be replaced from time to time. Works Cited “Responsive Trafﬁc Signals Designed with Petri nets”, Michel dos Santos Soares, Jos Vrancken, 2008 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC 2008)
Abstract In this study, a unique vehicle dynamic/crash mathematical model is proposed and developed to study the effect of vehicle dynamics on vehicle crash scenarios. Anti-lock braking system (ABS) and Active suspension (AS) control system are also co-simulated with the mathematical model to optimize the vehicle dynamic characteristics for imminent impact in a way that help improve vehicle impact characteristics and mitigate its collision. Validation of the vehicle crash structure in the proposed mathematical model is achieved to ensure that the modelling of crumble zone gives accurate results. It is demonstrated from this simulations that the vehicle dynamic response and crash scenario can be captured and analyzed fast and accurately. Also the results showed that the deformation of the crumple zone as well as the vehicle body pitch angle and acceleration can be minimized.
Details include road networks, individual drivers, and intersection signalization. These inputs allow analysts to apply ITS strategies into micro-simulation programs to generate measure of performances that determine the effectiveness and validity of an application. ITS strategies that analysts situate in micro-simulation are incident management, ramp metering, adaptive signal control, and traveler information . A research case study done by Henry Liu analyzed a portion of a highly congested freeway ne... ... middle of paper ... ... lane control measures. Ramp metering was carried out using ALINEA methodologies.
In addition to its major importance in vehicle suspension systems Automatic control is also useful in the numerical control of machine tools andin the manufacturing industries and in the design of cars and trucks in the automobile industries. 1.2 SYSTEM VARIABLES: An automobile suspension system is one which is responsible for a safety and smooth driving of the vehicle by avoiding disturbances, caused by small pits and holes on the road. The suspension carries the whole weight of the vehicle on the tires, so it should have some active and semi ... ... middle of paper ... ....1MATLAB CODE FOR STEP RESPONSE: a= [10 1] b = [200 16.64 2] s=tf(x,y) [A,B,C,D]=tf2ss(x,y) eig(A) step(a,b) rlocus(a,b) stepinfo(s) Fig. step response for the suspension system Fig. root locus 7.CONCLUSIONS: The control system on vehicle suspension was found to be stable when we use both the Eigen values and the Lyapunov stability.
One of the major programs used for this testing is the DYNA3D which was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (A Gift of Fire, Baase). DYNA3D is a computer simulation program that models the interactions of physical objects on impact such as vehicle impacts involving roadside structures such as signs, supports, guardrails and crash cushions. DYNA3D, suitable for solving problems involving rapid change, has had many applications in safety analysis. Laboratory analysts have used DYNA3D to study crashworthiness in a number of vehicle safety studies, where models of complex vehicles impact roadside safety structures and other vehicles, deforming under the impact. The DYNA3D program uses a technique called the finite-element method where a grid is superimposed on the frame of a car dividing the car into a finite number of small pieces or elements.
Friction Driving a car could be a scary thing if you don’t know how to handle different situations. You will have a very high risk of getting into an accident. Before getting into a car your should know how to handle it well, be aware of your surroundings and the conditions of your environment. Friction is the resistance to motion between two objects in contact with each other. When the resistance related to the tires on the car against the road, it is called traction.