also proposed an iris recognition algorithm for noisy iris images based on bi-orthogonal wavelet transform. Zafar et. al.  proposed a simple method of segmentation using Gaussian filter followed by canny edge detector after the necessary preprocessing. Feature extraction is then applied on the segmented images, to represent the iris in fewer dimensions.
In automatic image annotation syst... ... middle of paper ... ...revious groups both of modalities are decomposed to their factors, but sometimes one modality is plays main role and the other modalities help the main modality to be factorized better. This guidance is usually done by defining regularization parameters. There are plenty researches in this group. For example  in a unified probabilistic model, use from tagging data to select neighbors of each items, then add unique Gaussian distributions on each item’s latent feature vector in the matrix factorization to ensure similar items will have similar latent features. Li, et al  designed a nonlinear NMF method with the priors of inter and intra-correlations among images and tags to predict the tag relevance of images.
In scalar quantization, each input symbol is treated separately in producing the output, while in vector quantization the input symbols are clubbed together in groups called vectors, and processed to give the output. This clubbing of data and treating them as a single unit increases the optimality of the vector quantizer, but at the cost of increased computational complexity. Coefficients that corresponds to smooth parts of data become small. (Indeed, their difference, and therefore their associated wavelet coefficient, will be zero, or very close to it). So we can throw away these coefficients without significantly distorting the image.
The algorithm also accounts for discontinuities in the shape contour and can reach nearby pixels. The contour trace starts from the top left point or pixel closest to the shape and proceeds clockwise following the surrounding of the contour of the shape rather than the contour itself. The path around the contour is traced in a look-forward sweep pattern to find the next surrounding point that is closest to the contour. The path is then closed when the start point is found.
Centroid Method: Calculates the distance between two clusters as the total of distances between their means for all of the variables. (J. Norušis, 2012) e. Ward´s method: Analyze the variances of data points in order to determine the distance between clusters. For each cluster, the means for all variables are calculate, As well as the squared Euclidean distance to the cluster means. (J. Norušis, 2012) b) Divisive clustering: starts with all data in one cluster and ends up with each in individual clusters. Moreover, this could be also proved with another method, if does not satisfies the model.
To solve NPAF, we propose a general multiplicative update rule (MUR). By introducing a new auxiliary function, we theoretically show that MUR for NPAF converges. As an application of NPAF, we develop a new NMF based dimension reduction algorithm, termed non-negative discriminative locality alignment (NDLA), wherein the learned bases exploits the latent local geometry structure in the dataset as well as the discriminative information indicated by sample labels. Experiments on synthetic and face image datasets suggest the effectiveness of NDLA in classification tasks and its robustness to image occlusions, compared with representative NMF based dimension reduction algorithms. Keywords: patch alignment framework, non-negative matrix factorization, image occlusion 1 Introduction Dimension reduction is the process of transforming data from a high-dimensional space to a low-dimensional subspace.
Sedgewick and Wayne 2011 states when implementing the algorithm in a computer, before inserting the current element into the emptied location, space needs to be made by moving the larger elements one position to the right in order to insert the current element in its c... ... middle of paper ... ...clusion, the experiment and report successfully described the performance of the sorting algorithms, how they work and also provoked critical thinking when contradictions were encountered. Works Cited Bruno R. Preiss, P., 1997. Example-Bucket Sort. http://www.brpreiss.com/books/opus4/html/page74.html. Carrano, F. M., 2012, 2007, 2003.
The Amrita e-learning network is one such system. There are a number of solutions to the delay problem like exploring functional parallelism in the MPEG-4 algorithm and spatio-temporal parallelism. A more interesting solution is to decompose the video sequence into GOPs (Groups of Pictures), and then a dedicated processor independently processes every GOP. The basic idea for data distribution is to arrange the uncompressed video sequence in GOPS. Then, we decide (a) how processors get the GOPS, and (b) which GOPS correspond... ... middle of paper ... ...ng network traffic thus overcoming the network delay.
Pipelining operations that can work on the partial output of preceding operations is another technique that exploits parallel processing opportunities [Smith and Chang 1975; Yao 1979]. For example, restriction and projection can be pipelined so that only a relatively small buffer for data exchange is required rather than the creation and subsequent reading of a possibly large temporary relation. Aspects of simultaneous evaluation and pipelining are combined in the so-called "feedback" method [Clausen 1980; Rothnie 1974, 1975], which uses partial results of a join operation in order to restrict its input. The degree to which this can be done depends on... ... middle of paper ... ...th semijoins that achieve very strong reduction [Chiu and Ho 1980; Chiu et al. 1981].
Dataset of micro-CT images are used. De-noising filter is used to remove noise from image as a pre-processing step, Feature extraction is performed next, and then Back Propagation Neural Network is created, and lastly, it modifies the weight number of network, and save the output. Proposed algorithm is compared with Thresholding method and Region Growing method. Results have shown that proposed technique outperforms other methods on the basis of speed and accuracy of