Taxonomy is a branch of science that is concerned with the classification of living and extinct organisms. It arranges them in hierarchies of superior and subordinate groups. (Oxforddictionaries.com, (2014), Encyclopaedia Britannica, (2014)). The classification of organisms is extremely important due to the existing diverse range of life. Many scientists classify these organisms to help establish organisation in order to study them more proficiently.
Why do humans tend to keep things in check? It is because it would be easier to move around and navigate our belongings, everyone does it, and it is like a system to us. In biology, the method to keep track and record organism in an organized method, this method is called as taxonomy. An 18th century biologist Linnaeus created and improved this concept and created the binomial nomenclature. The Linnaean binomial system of classifying animals brought organization from chaos Even to this day, the international congress of zoologist has created rules in naming organisms, the rules include: • Names must be in Latin and printed in italics, like most italics, they must be underlined when written • The name of the species homo or homo sapiens must be capitalized and must be written in a single word • The credit of authorship of name will be given tot the first person to publish an accurate and recognizable description.
Taxonomy attempts to arrange organisms in natural groups based on common features. It is concerned with the identification, naming, and classification of organisms. The seven major taxonomic categories, or taxa, used in classification are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Early systems used only two kingdoms, plant and animal, whereas most modern systems use five: MONERA (BACTERIA and BLUE-GREEN ALGAE), PROTISTA (PROTOZOA and the other ALGAE), FUNGI, PLANT, and ANIMAL. The discipline of ECOLOGY is concerned with the interrelationships of organisms, both among themselves and between them and their environment.
As schools of thought develop, ethnographic methods have changed and developed as well. Fieldwork is an ethnographic method that has been implemented in all anthropological schools of thought. It involves gathering data and information about a specific culture by observing and interacting within the society’s natural environment (History World International, 2001). Cultural evolutionists, historical anthropologists, and functionalists have all used various approaches and incorporated fieldwork differently into their school of thought. During the nineteenth century, Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer both developed theories of biological evolution that were accepted by scholars in Britain and America (McGee & Warms, 2008).
According to changing minds.org, Physiological psychology is the study of the physiological basis of how we think, connecting the physical operation of the brain with what we actually say and do. It is thus concerned with brain cells, brain structures and components, brain chemistry, and how all this leads to speech and action. It is also important to understand how we take in information from our five senses. Several persons contributed to the development of physiological psychology; such as Charles Darwin who were a biologist and whose theory of evolution revolutionized biology and strongly influenced early psychologists, René Descartes a philosopher and mathematician, Hermann von Helmholtz and Johannes Muller etc.Amongst them one of
In 1865, Gregor Mendel is the founder of modern genetics through his work with pea plant crosses. To this day, the work of Mendel and Darwin are widely accepted. The Important Players in the History of Evolutionary Thought Aristotle In 300 B.C. Greece, Aristotle made his contribution to evolutionary thought. Aristotle organized living organisms hierarchically.
It led biologists to concentrate on the diversity of organisms, their origins and their relation, their similarities and their differences, their geographical distribution and their adaptation to various environments. Darwin (1859) arrived at two main conclusions. • All species on earth descend from ancestral species and he presents a mechanism explaining evolution called natural selection. • Natural selection results in adaptive evolution (prevalence of hereditary characteristics favouring the survival and the reproduction of organisms in different environments). Evolution: Historical Controversy In order to fully understand Darwin’s vision, it is important to understand the historical context and compare it to the previous ideas on Earth and life on Earth.
Two of the fundamental facts of Darwin’s theory are: Evolution and Natural Selection. Charles Darwin came to understand that species appear and disappear through time, while they exist, they transform or change. Understanding the variations of species was essential to the development of the Darwinism theory. Darwin began to see the shifting of individuals while he was on the Beagle Voyage. He paid more attention to the varieties of individuals during his work on barnacles, domestic plants and animals.
In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, a work of literature that not only provided a working framework for the theory of evolution, “descent with modification” by means of natural selection, but also explained how the cumulative impact of natural selection influenced an organism and its environment. Darwin, however, neglected to mention how infectious diseases have served as a pivotal selective force in natural selection (Lederberg, 1999). Since animals first walked the earth, they have had to live with microscopic organism, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Not only did these microorganisms share an environment with animals, they interacted with them, causing both illness and death. Humans were no exception.
Henry Ford Community College. 17.03.2014. http://sciweb.hfcc.edu/biology/jacobs/bio131/mitosis/mitosis.html O'Connor, Clare. 2008. Mitosis and Cell Division. Scitable by Nature Education.