(2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved 21 June 2005 from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html.
63-84). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan Pajares (2002) Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy; Retrieved on January 27, 2011 from http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, (2009) Psychology, Fourth edition: New York, NY: Worth Publishers Schultz & Schultz (2008) History of Psychology; Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Classical conditioning explains how people learn behaviours through association and operant conditioning explains how the consequences of behaviours shape behaviour. Classical conditioning is related to learning by association, and refers to the conditioning of reflexes. During Pavlov’s experiment, it was determined that new external stimuli such as sights as sounds, with the original stimuli could be associated with reflexes. Operant conditioning involves learning through the consequences of behavioural responses. Skinner adapted the principles which were investigated by Thorndike, to explain how many aspects of human behaviour are acquired.
“The psychology of the late 20th Century took two forms: one was radical behaviourism, distinctly the minority position. The majority position was the ‘rest of psychology’” (Malone, Cruchon: 2001). Psychologists such as Skinner and Watson didn’t see psychology as the study of the mind, but as the study of behaviour. In Watson’s view, the behaviour of a person, or animal, involved responses to different stimuli in its environment. He believed these responses could be learnt and that the stimuli in the environment were clear factors in conditioned reflexes.
(1963). Conjectures and Refutations, 33–39. Retrieved from www.stephenjaygould.org/ctrl/popper_falsification.html#see Valentine, E. R. (1991). Conceptual issues in psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
He believed that one must first observe a behavior in a certain environment or situation, then predict and determine the connection between the two. Much of his theory was based on the work of Ivan Pavlov’s observations through classical conditioning. Watson claimed that the process of classical conditioning could be used to explain any behavioral factor in human psychology. Classical conditioning involves the pairing of two different stimuli in producing a learning response from the participant. His belief on the topic was that single differences in behavior were caused by different experiences of learning.
London: SAGE Publications LTD Martin, G., N.( 2008) Psychology: A beginner’s Guide. Oxford: Oneworld Publications Kalat, J., W.( 2010) Introduction to Psychology. London: Cengage Learning Tuffin, K.( 2004) Understanding Critical Social Psychology. London: Sage Publications Ltd Flick, U.(ed.) ( 1998) The Psychology of the Social.
London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates BIERHOFF, H. W. (2001). Prosocial Behaviour (Chapter 9). In M. Hewstone & W. Stroebe (Eds. ), Introduction to Psychology (3rd Edn.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
The Penguin Dictionary Of Psychology. London: Penguin. Tesser, A. (1995) Advanced Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.