Baroque is nowadays mainly famous for the French baroque era and due to Louis XIVs palace in Versailles. During the 1700s, rulers were anxious to show off with their power and wealth, which was fully accomplished by the time Versailles was finished. Baroque art, music and architecture became bizarre, dramatic and more extravagant than ever before. Artists started following a more non-realistic way of drawing and led the “viewer” into an imaginary world, especially due to their usage of intensive contrasts. The „Baroque art period“ was a very important time in the history of art.
The Industrial Revolution that took place in the 1800’s was a radical change that began in England and soon enough had spread through Europe and America. As a result, social, political, and economical transformations took place and art shifted in style and subject themes flourished. The Philosophes, which were philosophers who dominated the French Enlightment and visited salons, contributed to the development of art criticism. The Rococo artistic style reflects the merriness that the wealthy people decorated their homes with, while the Neoclassical art style focused more on the middle class people and was distinguished by Western art and culture of Ancient Greece or Rome. The culture helped shape the Neoclassicism art style that represented the growth of a civilized society.
Wood paneling, gilding, painting, and tapestries were the most popular wall applications. Gilded, carved, and plaster ceilings were the most prominently used during the periods. Craftsmanship was emphasized, and there was an overall lightness of design, especially in comparison to comparative English periods. Walls and ceilings were a vital part of the design, because these areas were the most emphatic areas of the room. Furniture was important but lackluster when contrasted by the gorgeous delineation of forms surrounded the rooms.
("Impressionism", Encarta) Art Deco, was used primarily in furniture, jewelry, textiles, and interior decoration. Art Deco grew out of a conscious effort to simplify the elaborate of the century, Art Nouveau. Art Deco became more geometric and linear as objects increasingly massed produced. Art Deco was a style of decorative are and architecture that was popular in the 1920's. ("Art Deco", Encarta) Cubism, a movement in modern art, especially painting, that was primarily concerned with abstract forms rather than lifelike representation.
Design Trends In Architecture The more things change, the more they stay the same. While art has always been an ever changing form, it has deep roots in traditionalism; whether an artist or designer looks at the art that came before him and is inspired to follow that form, is inspired to do something completely opposite, or sees the flaws which, if corrected, could make that work of art perfect, he is ultimately quite influenced by what came before him. Nowhere is this more evident than in the design styles found not only in art, but in architecture and interior design. The twentieth century has been a time of great innovation, and yet, very few eras have seen so many stylistic revivals. The popularity of these classical styles has often superceded that of the more experimental, modern ideas, reinforcing the idea that aesthetic beauty is absolutely timeless.
It seems that this concept has come about largely as a way to regain identity after shedding the concepts of the Enlightenment. “Philosophers, writers, and artists expressed disillusionment with the rational-humanist tradition of the Enlightenment. They no longer shared the Enlightenment's confidence in either reason's capabilities or human goodness...” (Perry, pg. 457) It is interesting to follow art through history and see how the general mood of society changed with various aspects of history, and how events have a strong connection to the art of the corresponding time.
It rose as a reaction to the belief that the causes of World War I are ‘reason’ and ‘logic’. The movement itself was influenced from previous movements such as Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism and Expressionism. Dada was the opposite of what art stood for. The Dadaists rejected traditional culture and aesthetics hoping to destroy it. The Dadaist’s interests are solely in rebelling against what they saw as cultural snobbery and political support for the war.
It took on many different characteristics, and some of it’s well known designers from the era created new artistic vocabulary that could best express the modern world. “Art Nouveau’s success was a reaction against the late 19th century academic art and was replaced by the development of 20th century modernist style” (Eskilson, 56). Relative to graphic design, it was popular in poster printing and book production, although it was used by artists for a variety of other types of work including magazines, labels, advertisements, and typography. The typography was so heavily ornate that it was not desirable for text faces but great for display work. It was a during a time when people were dissatisfied with the new ideologies of science, rationalism, and literal interpretation and rather embraced spiritualism, mysticism, and influences from newly accessible cultures such as Japan, India, and Africa.
Many artists attempt to be “avant-garde”, to present something new to the world; such as artists from the Cubist time period, Braque and Picasso. They are known for not including a clear perspective and for having geometric shapes. There are also avant-garde artists who refer back to the past for inspiration; for example Neoclassicism (Oath of the Horatii by David) and Renaissance (School of Athens by Raphael) both include Greek and Roman coalition. Avant-garde artists show the viewer’s their uniqueness and ambition in presenting something new while incorporating older traditions or just simply going past the modern world and creating something new. The Oath of the Horatii by David was a symbolic painting for the French because it symbolized the war that was yet to come for them.
Van Eyck’s paintings were created at the dawn of the early Renaissance, which drew upon ideas like science, humanism and philosophy. The art during that period preserved a medieval understanding of a hierarchical relationship as well as religious imagery but also while pleasing in a realistic treatment of elements that were both natural as well as man made. On the other hand, Rigaud was present during the Baroque cultural movement at the height of reformation. As a result of the time period, the art style for the Baroque was grand ... ... middle of paper ... ...In contrast, Hyacinthe Rigaud’s is just the opposite, using a plethora of detail and sense of grandeur in order to reflect the majestic nature of the king and his monarchy.