Art History

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In the early 1700s, the monarchies failures at finance, national debt, involvement in multiple wars with

little care given to veterans and rising unemployment inflamed the people. When coupled with the

monarchies lifestyles of lavish spending on countless mistresses, flouting morals, excessive parties at

court, and political favors, the popularity of royalty was quickly disintegrating. The irresponsibility of

the aristocracy was no longer ignored, and a movement was beginning. This set the stage for political


Writers such as Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704) of England experienced these changes and began exploring the ideals of republicanism and liberalism through their writing. Thus, England began an intellectual movement called the Age of Enlightenment. Intellectuals became skeptical of older belief systems rooted in rituals, traditions, and superstitions and, instead, began to believe in the power of humans for goodness and rationalization and, that through rationalization, all things could be achieved. With this reason, it was...

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