Chemical trails allow the colony to remember where rewarding food sources are, to choose between locations of different food qualities and even to regulate total foraging activity (Jackson & Ratnieks 2006). The objective of this study was to determine food preference and recruitment time in garden ants. How quickly do ants find rewarding food sources, how long it takes them to recruit more ants and which food sources they prefer? Materials and Methods Two experiments were conducted, one using different tasting solutions and one using peanut butter. The peanut butter experiment was done fist so as to recruit ants for the next experiment.
Members of some species eat honeydew from plants infested with aphids and certain other insects; others called dairying ants, feed and protect the aphids ad “milk” them by stroking. Harvester ants eat and store seeds; these sometimes spout around the nest, leading to the erroneous belief that these ants cultivate food. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004) A. 2. Reproduction and population Scientists from CNRS found that colonies in tropical forests tend to produce numerous, low-quality queens.
It is noteworthy that, not only the ants are beneficial. The ants in return protect the plants from herbivores and competing plants. As a result, the adaptations of the ants’ habits, the anatomy and the physiology of the plants form a mutualism relationship between the two species (Rickson, 1975). The complex living arrangements of Acacia Cornigera and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea have led to extensive studies of the special growth form by many publications. Studies has suggested that Beltian bodies must have evolved to serve as a food source for the populations of ants that Cornigera interacts with.
Thus pollen is essential for normal growth and development of individual as well as reproduction of colonies. Plate 1.1: Honey bee (Apis mellifera) having pollen load in pollen basket on their hind legs 1.2 Nutritional value of bee-pollen The carbohydrates in pollen are mainly polysaccharides like starch and cell wall material. The sugar fructose, gluc... ... middle of paper ... ...1983). 1.7 Aims and objectives: The aim of this work was to establish the main conditions for obtaining a novel natural food product from pollen, safe and with improved nutritional potential, to be used as a dietary supplement or a functional ingredient for formulating other foods. Pollen matrices are subjected to lactic acid fermentation using lactic acid bacteria as a starters and their effect on some of the original characteristics were studied.
Pairwise ... ... middle of paper ... ...ifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis). PloS one 8(12):e83491. Koenig, W.D., A.M. Liebhold, D.N. Bonter, W.M. Hochachka, and J.L.
Volume 5, Number 6, 12 June 2007, e168. 7. Winfree, R. . The conservation and restoration of wild bees. Annuals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE Honeybees collect nectar and pollen from flowers as food source. The nutrients needed to grow colony populations and maintain their health comes from nectar and pollen. Nectar which is then converted in to honey, provides carbohydrates. Pollen as bee-bread supplies dietary requirements such as proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals (Huang 2010; Degrandi-Hoffman 2013). A review by Wakhle (1981) reported the versatile characters of pollen and bees products.
Like we discussed in class, the bumblebee is a eusocial organism that lives in colonies that consist of multiple castes to divide the tasks of the colony. They are very important pollinators for agriculture. Bumblebee species vary according to how they store pollen and feed developing larvae. Pollen storers accumulate pollen for later use, often re-using vacated cocoons for this. The queen and workers feed each larva individually, opening their brood cells to regurgitate a mixture of pollen and nectar for them (Colla, Richardson, Williams.
1996). The leaf cutting ant belongs to the genus called Atta. There are fifteen different species of Atta and all are limited to the new world (Holldobler & Wilson, 1994). The leaf-cutter ant looks pretty much like a regular ant in North America except that it is a little bigger than most ants. Looking at the ant in the untrained eye a person usually perceives that it is a primitive organism.
J (1979) American Spiders second edition. Litton educational publishing, New York ,pp 165. HAWKESWOOD, TREVOR. J (2003) Spiders of Australia: an introduction to their classification, Biology and distribution. Pensoft publication,Bulgaria, pp 264.