A magnetic stir bar is kept underneath the 250-ml beaker so that the mixture gets dissolved faster. The pH is recorded on the instrument named pH meter which records the pH value. Equivalence point is a point in
The solubility product constant, Ksp is given in the following example: Ksp for AgCl is Ksp = [Ag][Cl] Ksp for PbI2 is Ksp = [Pb][I]2 This gives the relationship between the ions in the saturated solution and is the maximum concentration possible without creating precipitation. In this lab, solutions of lead nitrate and potassium iodide will be mixed at a number of dilutions. The reactions will then be observed to see at which point a precipitate no longer occurs. Ksp will then be stated as a range of values at room temperature, and the precipitate test tubes will be heated until the precipitate is dissolved so that Ksp may be observed and determined at different levels. In this experiment various solutions of lead nitrate and potassium iodide were mixed at a number of different dilutions.
Figure 2 shows the isothermal entropy changes heating the sample (a), (b) and (c) and (the figure 3 cooling the sample (a), (b) and (c)). The solid curves are due to the variations from atmospheric pressure (P^at) to applied pressure, P=1.5 kbar (fig.2a and fig.3a), P=2.0 kbar (fig.2b and fig.3b), P=2.9 kbar (fig.2c and fig.3c) without applied magnetic field (µ_0 h_0=0 T) for sample heating and cooling, as indicated by the arrows. The open circles and open squares represent 〖ΔS〗_T vs. T experimental data for Gd5Si2Ge2 which are in good agreement with our theoretical curves for sample heating and cooling, respectively . The value was used for this compound in our theoretical curves , value that we kept in our model in all theoretical curves. For all pressure changes, th... ... middle of paper ... ...ing applied pressure, in fact only the 〖ΔS〗_T-peak intensity increases with increasing pressure.
I have used the following formula to predict some results of this experiment. q = Q mc where q = temperature rise, Q = quantity of heat, m = mass of solution (20g) and c = the specific heat capacity of water which = 4.18Jg ¹K ¹. 65g Zinc ® 217000 joules 1g Zinc ® 217000 = 3338 joules 65 Therefore for 1g of zinc: 3338 =39°c rise 20x4.18 I can now use this formula proportionately to predict results for my investigation. For 0.3g of zinc: 0.3 x 39 = 12°c rise For 0.5g of zinc: 0.5 x 39 = 19.5°c rise For 0.7g of zinc: 0.7 x 39 = 27.3°c rise For 0.9g of zinc: 0.9 x 39 = 35.1°c rise I have used this information in order to predict the results of the temperature rise I expect to see as the amount of zinc is increased. I have also used this information to plan my experiment.
A cathode is a type electrode where electrons move. Water is then condensed hydrogen gas and hydroxide ion. The hydrogen is then taken out of the equation so that the hydroxide bonds with the sodium. Sodium carbonate also known as washing soda is a white solid and has the chemical formula of Na2CO3. The molar mass of sodium carbonate is 105.9888 g/mol.
Varying the concentrations helps to prove a higher molar of acid reacts faster. The third variable was temperature this was completed in the same way. Before the acid was mixed with the calcium carbonate the acid was heated up at different temperatures using a bunsen burner. The three different temperatures the acid was heated at were 25ºc (room temp), 35ºc and 45ºc. The results collected were the times recorded each time the mass decreased every 2cm³ intervals.
From this reaction, the equilibrium constant can be calculated by using the ratio of the product of the products over the product of the reactants. Thus Keq= [C]*[D] / [A] * [B]. Some reversible reactions reach equilibrium faster than others such as that of Iron (III) ion (Fe3+) with thiocyanate ion (SCN-) that forms thiocyanatoiron(III) (FeSCN2+). In this reversible reaction Fe3+ reacts with SCN- to produce FeSCN2+ in water. For this reaction A is the iron (III) ion, B is the thiocyanate ion and C is the thiocyanato iron (III).
Before equivalence point i.e., between 0% to 90% of the reaction, the pH for HCL increases faster than acetic acid to reach the equivalence point. At this phase the solution is acidic. At the equivalence i.e., between 90% and 100% of the reaction, the moles of acid are stoichiometrically equal to the moles of base. The equivalence point for both HCL and acetic acid is 7.67 and 9.19 respectively. The volume at which the equivalence point occurs is 23.25 ml and 24.50 ml respectively for HCL and acetic acid.
In ZFC measurement, the ferrite sample is cooled down to the liquid helium temperature in the absence of a field and then a moderate magnetic field is applied (500 Oe) and the temperature is gradually increased simultaneously the magnetization (M) values were recorded. In FC measurement, the ferrite sample is cooled in a non-zero magnetic field and similar procedure is followed as in ZFC measurement and M values were recorded. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1 XRD analysis X-ray powder diffraction patterns of good quality were obtained for the samples using CuKα radiation of ... ... middle of paper ... ...a peak between 500C to 2000C which can be attributed to the burning of organic matter in the sample. A rapid decline in the weight in the temperature region 200 to 3500C can be ascribed to the loss of water molecules and decomposition of organics and nitrates.
SCIENCE REPORT AMMONIUM NITRATE NH4NO3 Problem Our task was to investigate what the optimum ratio of solute to solvent that will produce the maximum cooling/heating effect? Hypothesis With a smaller quantity of water (50mls) and the same amount of Ammonium Nitrate added. After any period of time the mixture will be a cooler temperature than that of a mixture with a larger quantity of water. Variables „X Water „X Teaspoons „X Time „X Ammonium Nitrate „X Thermometer „X Stirring (used thermometer) „« Changed/Uncontrolled Variables - The amount of times the mixture was stirred. We stirred the mixture until the Ammonium Nitrate was dissolved, so the amount of times we stirred after each teaspoon was different.