A Diet of Worms in the Digital Age
I can’t prove it, but there is no doubt in my mind that textual arguments have been raging in scholarly circles for as long as there has been text to debate. In my mind’s eye I can see them: ancient Sumerian scribes lecturing each other about clay types and wedge depth; early Semitic peoples voting “no” on the vowel; medieval European scribes boldly pushing forward with punctuation, spaces between words, and the lower-case alphabet, and having heated debates on the long-term viability of the capital letter. And then came the printing press! Can you imagine the contention! What bold new vistas were opened up for scholarship! But anyone could publish anything—no matter what the quality! And surely, this spelled the doom of calligraphy.
With the advent of the digital age, scholarly textual debate has simply entered a new phase. At issue here: what is the potential of digitally-powered scholarship, and how can that potential be realized? What approaches should we take in terms of format and methodology?
William H. O’Donnell and Emily A. Thrush (“Designing a Hypertext Edition of a Modern Poem”) discuss the issues involved in designing hypertext editions of literature. Specifically, they refer to the edition of Yeats’s “Lapis Lazuli” that they designed. The main work to be studied, they feel (be it “Lapis Lazuli” or something else), must not be cluttered with visible links. They have devised a method of windowing that anticipates the modern “frames” format of Internet documents, and stress that any attempt at electronic analysis of a work of literature must be intuitively structured, easy to use, and customizable. Their edition of “Lapis Lazuli” appears well-constructed and functional and seems to have fairly broad appeal, but it seems also to be intended more as an aid to understanding the poem than as a tool for scholarly research. This distinction separates this article somewhat from the others considered here, though the basic format could be applied to other projects.
Peter Shillingsburg (“Principles for Electronic Archives, Scholarly Editions, and Tutorials”) frankly admits that what we all secretly want is to have every conceivable kind of information—textual, visual, audio—related to a given topic all sorted for us and available right at our fingertips. This is, of course, impossible, but he feels that electronic editions of scholarly works have the potential to come closer to that ideal than any other medium. He systematically lays out the main problems facing those who create electronic editions and suggests some ways to address them.
...ts taken away before they even have the chance to used them. They no longer have the choice in how they want to live their lives, political feelings or social interactions because they are either different or do not possess Factor X. These people posses what are as Fukuyama calls them accidental characteristics, that make them unable to be categorize under Factor X.
When Afghanistan was beginning its formation as a nation in the 1700s, two of that era’s major world powers were advancing toward Afghanistan: Britain westward from India and Russia moving eastward. “England was busy conquering India between 1757 and 1857, Visalli writes, “and Russia was spreading its control east, and was on Afghanistan’s border by 1828.” One of the most lucrative products that England exported from its new colony, India, was opium and by 1770 Britain had a monopoly on opium production in India and saw to it that cultivation spread into Afghanistan as well (the boundary between the two was ill-defined until 1893). In 1859, England took control of all Afghan territory between the Indus River and the Hindu Kush, including Baluchistan, denying Afghanistan access to the sea. England invaded Afghanistan again in 1878, overthrew the ruling monarch, and forced the new government to become a British protectorate, i.e., rendering Afghanistan dependent on and under the rule of the British monarch, subjected to war, plunder, land grab, economic/development crippling, occupation.
In 2011, schools with music programs had a 90.2 percent graduation rate as opposed to schools without these advantages only having a 72.9 percent graduation rate. Funding issues have generated controversial debates about whether or not music programs should remain in schools. Although critics say that schools’ limited funds should be spent on improving on the quality of education, statistics have argued for the other side. Providing music education in schools prepares students for the workplace, causes higher attendance and graduation rates, and increases test scores.
The adoption of the Gutenberg’s Renaissance technology, the printing press, was disruptive in the same way that the Internet is. Prior to the mass adoption of the printing press there were copyists or scribes who were in the business of duplication. These businesses were under the patron of the wealthy families of the Renaissance Era. As such their business was dependent on the tastes of these families. Working copyists declined in the last part of the fifteenth century due to the adoption if the printing press. When scribes made errors in their duplications the errors were crossed out and corrected in the margins of the document which led to further inaccuracies and misinterpretations down the line. It even led to sarcastic comments made in the margins! The printing press was of course a faster more accurate method of duplication. So the thing is, people have a way of developing technologies that put other people out of business. In the name of progress some traditions have to decline. In addition, people hate change. We have trouble managing change at the best of
Much too often in America today, modern music and art programs in schools are perceived to many as extracurricular activities rather than important subjects that are vital to a students learning and skill development. The truth of the matter is that encouraging music and art education in public schools has a much larger impact on student’s grades, academic performance, and the economy than the majority people realize. Within the next year city school budgets will be dropping by twenty five percent, and despite the fact that music and art programs have been showing a dramatic contribution to student’s learning, this substantial drop in funding for the programs will lead to no dedicated money for art or music programs (Mezzacappa). There is no doubt that a cut in funding for art programs will take a huge toll on students overall grades and test scores. Research has found that the studying of music and art facilitates learning in other subjects and enhances children’s skills in other areas (Brown). Furthermore, providing students with a creative outlet can do great justice in reducing the stress from many other classes and even offer insight for students in possible career paths involving the art field. The art industry today currently supports 4.1 million full-time jobs (Dorfman). By increasing the funding of music and art programs for students preschool through twelfth grade we can see a dramatic increase in the education of children across the United States, assist with skill development in young students, and greatly benefit the economy at the same time.
The term functionalism is used to explain social events in terms of the functions that they perform. The functionalist approach is also used to show how something affects the continued existence of society. A functionalist approach to gender inequality shows us that gender dominant careers help society continue to function, but we can already see the long term effects of how gender inequality has created issues in today’s society. Even after all of the massive...
...of Library and Information Sciences, Third Edition (pp. 1507–1517). Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1081/E-ELIS3-120043240
In the world of preservation and library science the common focus is on preserving content, ensuring its longevity, findability, and a stable consistent metadata and technology solution, However we live in an age where everyone is a publisher of some form, and more consistently the content they produce will be in a digital rather than analogue form. Within that content there will always be varying amounts of metadata, some will be populated with an immense detail and granularity, some content will have been created with no human intervention to add additional information to it. In fact much of the digital material produced will have been done so by people who have no concept of metadata, and no inclination to know about it or time to use it. The question raised by Smiths statement highlights many of the issues around data preservation and digital content, with metadata only being a part of those issues, but integral to the ongoing management of the massive influx of digital content being produced.
The discussion into the relevance of this question can only be fabricated based on the definitive consideration of the internet, a key digital facet that expedites the abrasion of print publications. The internet has rendered access to information very effective, easy and strategic. Gone are the days when one would walk miles to the nearest library in order to satisfy their appetite for reading. With the internet, information storage has largely been restructured and can be retrieved in various digital forms. It is therefore commonsensical to assume that many publications, previously in print form, will eventually appear in digital format as e-books. To champions of printed books, this futuristic scenario provides the basis for their arguments.
Hypertext is changing the way we read, write and conceptualize literature. Traditionally, the distance between reader and writer with written works is maintained by multiple levels of people, paper and time. Once a piece of work is published, the writer's responsibility basically ends; meanwhile, the reader is still responsible for knowing and understanding all of the references the writer includes in the work. Hypertext creates a hyper-extension of the work, basically giving it a life of its own. A printed book is unable to recreate this same detailed precision and accessibility because of its physicality. A published book cannot be recalled instantly in order to make any changes or update information, unless it is reprinted and there is always a defined amount of time involved. Hypertext has the ability to link a multitude of related subject matters and authors, while incorporating a variety of techniques, such as sound and movement, to involve and extend the relationship between readers and writers.
With the advancement of technology and the exponential increase of Internet use, professionals-academic and business-are relying on electronic resources for information, research, and data. The Internet gives an individual access to a sea of information, data, and knowledge; plus, this vast amount of information is available in a matter of seconds, rather than hours or days. The ease of access, availability, up-to-the-second timeliness, and vastness of online resources is causing many professionals, however, to forgo the use of print sources. Online resources are useful to conduct scholarly research and 'may be convenient, but they have shortcomings that make print sources necessary for submitting high-quality assignments' (Dilevko & Gottieb, 2002, ¶ 1).
Similar to any type of argument, there will always be advantages and disadvantages for each of paper book and e-book. Therefore prior to outlining the advantages of ebook, and discussing how those advantages outweigh its disadvantages for the purpose of objectivity this essay will first describe the advantages of the traditional hardcopy books, which had formed some of the counterarguments, and subsequently address these issues one by one and comparatively highlight the advantages of ebooks .