While Mexican Americans were considered white by law, the documentary A Class Apart sheds light on the struggles and eventual triumph of Mexican Americans in the their journey for racial equality within the United States. Following the Mexican War, Mexican Americans were subjected to a Jim Crow style of discrimination. Despite retaining U.S. citizenship, Mexican Americans were treated as second class citizens. Frustrated by social, political, and economic disenfranchisement, Mexican Americans sought the assistance of the United States Supreme Court, in what would become a landmark case, to secure the full rights afforded to them as United States citizens. The end of the Mexican American War in 1848 resulted in tens of thousands of new American citizens. After the war, America acquired vast areas of Mexican territory which had been inhabited by Mexicans. While the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ensured citizenship of those occupying the newly seized lands, their equal treatment was another …show more content…
Texas. Although Hernandez was undeniably guilty of his crime his conviction in the murder of Joe Espinosa was deemed unfair by the Mexican community based upon the enlistment of a partial jury of all whites. Texas authorities argued that Hernandez was legally considered white and had therefore been tried by a jury of his peers. A brilliant yet personally troubled Mexican American lawyer named Gustavo C. Garcia and equally talented Carlos Cadena took on Hernandez’s case, standing not on the claim of his innocence but on the notion that Mexican American were treated as a class apart from whites. Prior to Garcia and Cadena’s victory in the Hernandez vs. Texas case Mexican Americans had been denied protection under the 14th Amendment. The amendment was interpreted by the ruling class as a clause to protect black Americans, Mexican classification as white left them pigeon held in
In 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed and borders were designated between Texas and Mexico, border between California and Mexico was established and the territories of California and New Mexico was bought for 15 million along with any cancellation of debts owed to the United States. Those Mexicans that lived in these territories could become U.S. citizens or return to
Higher Learning - Film Analysis Exposition: The Establishing Shot of the film is a full screen American Flag, the camera zooms out and points down, revealing a large crowd of people in a rally, being very patriotic. As the camera zooms off the flag we come across a statue of Columbus- indicating it to be Columbus University. The speaker on the stage gives us another indication of the setting by Shouting'Columbus University'. They are in front of a stage with Band music playing and chants rising out. Whilst this continues in the background three characters are established:
In February, 1848 Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the war with America, albeit under the threat of total domination by the United States. Although not agreed upon in a mutual sense, Mexico did work diligently to ensure the rights of its peoples still homesteading within the border region. Specific provisions were set forth within the document that guaranteed free passage within the region, respect for worldly possessions, protection under U.S. law, and the ability to make a decision pertaining to citizenship under Mexican or American rule. However, with as admirable of a document the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo appeared on paper, its practices were far less diligent in defending the rights of the Mexican-Americans caught
In the 1960s and ‘70s, as Chicanos not only pressed for equal rights and better educational reforms to better their communities lives, some began to question and seek out more ways they could take back their communities. Many Chicano activists began looking at the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, a 1848 agreement between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican-American War and resulted in the US acquiring territory from Mexico that currently comprises the much of the Southwestern US. in the
Since Santa Anna was taken out of position as president, the Mexican government refused to recognize Texas as independent officially. After attempts to invade Texas by Mexico, the United States decided to annex the Republic of Texas in 1845. This lead to the outbreak of the Mexican-American War. With help from local Native Americans, the United States was able to defeat Mexico, getting them to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo recognized the Texas cession and also agreed to sell California, and the rest of its territory north of Rio Grande for $15 million, as well as taking care of any damages created from the
...n. In article five of the treaty, the boundary between the nations was determined. This primarily the borders that we had today. Since Americans were in complete control of Mexico during this time, the signing of the treaties would kick america out and give Mexico control of their new shrunken territory. The agreement also talked about if another war does erupt between them again, the countries can not hurt the innocent including women, children, ecclesiastics, farmers,merchants, rich people, unarmed citizens and many more. Houses and other respected buildings like churches, hospitals, schools and colleges can not be destroyed. The Treaty was ratified by the president on march 16, 1848 and was made official on July fourth, 1848. The Americans gave the Mexicans only 15 million for all the land they got;stealing more than half of the Mexican empire.
Through the agreement, the US promised that all Mexicans who occupied the newly acquired US territory were going to be incorporated into the Union of the United States. They were to enjoy all the rights of the US citizens. To be classified as citizens of the US, something had to be done since the US did not accept people of color as
Individuality can be an admired gift, but it is often buried under society’s illogically perfect expectations. The famous film director, Tim Burton, renowned for directing hauntingly innocent movies such as Edward Scissorhands and Alice in Wonderland, affirms this in several thrilling adventures. He shows that uniqueness is not a liability, but an asset, even if it means being an outsider or a misfit. Two of his films, Miss Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children and Edward Scissorhands, showcase the message: identity is preferable to conformity.
Since the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, Mexican Americans have been treated unfairly due to their ethnicity and background. Throughout the years Mexican Americans/Chicanos have dealt with so numerous amount of issues against the Anglo Americans and faced many injustices. It was not until the 1940’s with the Mexican American Civil rights movement and the Chicano movement in the 1960’s that Mexican Americans fought back against discriminations. I argue that the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement and The Chicano Movement equally fought for their people, because they fought for sufficient labor laws, equality within the education system and against overall Mexican American discrimination.
In February 2, 1848, the final armistice treaty Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, through which the United States government got the access to entire area of California, Nevada, Utah plus some territory in Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Wyoming. As a compensation, the United States government paid 18.25 million dollars to Mexico.( Pecquet, Gary M., and C. F. Thies. 2010) However, apart from the death of people, Mexico lost half of its territory in this war, which initiate Mexican’s hostile towards American. In addition, after the Mexican-American war, there was an absence of national sense in Mexican, which had a negative effect on the unity and development of the country.
By the end of the Mexican American war of 1848, the United States was able to gain possession of Mexican territory. Many whom were living in the new seized land of the U.S. were offered legal citizenship as an agreement to ending the war. However granted legal citizenship for the Mexican Americans would not mean that they gained equal treatment. The problem with the racial caste system was that Mexican American was mixed with Spanish and Indian ancestry and did not fit with the white and black racial categories. They were in fact to be considered white by law but their status, as citizens did not stop the unequal treatment. In the film “A Class Apart” and Juan Gonzalez’s Chapter five depicts the struggles that Mexican Americans had faced with discrimination.
For many years, unjust treatment of Mexicans and Mexican Americans has occurred in the United States. Over the years, people like Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and Emma Tenayuca have fought to improve civil rights and better treatment for farm workers. The textbook that I have been reading during the semester for my Chicano History class, Crucible of Struggle: A history of Mexican Americans from Colonial times to the Present Era, discusses some of the most important issues in history that Mexicans and Mexicans Americans have gone through. Some of these problems from the past are still present today. Not all of the racial problems were solved, and there is a lot to be done. I have analyzed two different articles about current historical events that have connections between what is happening today and what had happened in Mexican American History.
On 1821, after attaining Independence from Spain, Mexico became conflicted with the U.S. A dispute over the boundary separating Mexico and the newly annexed Republic Texas was the main issue that drove Mexico and the United States to engage in a two-year long war from 1846-1848 (Vargas 79). The Mexican American War resulted in the defeat of Mexico and the loss of Mexico’s northern territories. The Treaty of Guadalupe was later negotiated which guaranteed Mexican the full rights of U.S. citizenship and the inviolable protection of their property rights. However, the United States failed to honor this latter part of the agreement by omitting Article 10 allowing the U.S. government to deny the explicit legitimacy of all Mexican land grants, creating
A.I.: Artificial Intelligence is a Steven Spielberg science fiction drama film, which conveys the story of a younger generation robot, David, who yearns for his human mother’s love. David’s character stimulates the mind-body question. What is the connection between our “minds” and our bodies?