What is a tidal saltwater marsh or wetland? Our book (Gosselink 2000) defines a tidal saltwater marsh as adhering to the vague but, generally established definition of a wetland plus also, experiencing periodic inundation due to the effects of tide influx caused by either the moon cycle, as do tidal saltwater marshes of California, or by wind, like the tidal saltwater marshes found here in the Gulf Coast. Tidal saltwater marshes are located around the globe and can have some very different features. All of them, mangrove marshes excluded, show a similar pattern of plant succession. These plants are similar in most marshes but, different areas posses their own distinct species. While Spartina alterniflora is a native to the Gulf Coast and to the East coast (Ayres et al. 1999) they are invasive when introduced on the West coast, which happened in the mid 1970 's where it started out competing the native Spartina foliosa (Ayres et al. 1999). Many species when carried over to another tidal saltwater marsh, whether on accident or on purpose, can become invasive and have a detrimental impact on the previously stable environment.
How invasive species take over once introduced:
The main threat of invasive plant species is the effects it will have once it displaces native plant species How are invasive plants are able to displace the native plant populations in the first place? Invading plant species are able to displace the native plant populations by various means the following avenues: hybridization, competitive edge and pathogen introduction followed by their ensuing after effects are discussed below.
Hybridization can lead to the displacement of native plan...
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...icrobial taxa where lost completely then inoculation of the area with desired soil biota may be required for native plants to recolonize the area (Zubek et al. 2009).
If hand removal proves to difficult then toxic chemicals may have to be used these are costly and harmful to the native species in the area as well
Physical and chemical effects or legacies caused by invasive species can cause problems when attempting to reestablishing a native species population. There will be associated labor cost for seeding and planting of desired native species (Cione et al. 2002), augmentation of soil resources via amendment or removal (Perry et al. 2010), or perhaps even human control over natural disturbance regimes (D 'Antonio and Vitousek 1992) in order to hinder invasive intrusions or to encourage natural progression of native species.
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