Effective Communication Among The Health Care Setting Essay

Effective Communication Among The Health Care Setting Essay

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Communication is essential in all human interactions and is defined as an exchange of information between individuals through shared symbols and signs (Ruesch & Bateson, 1987). It encompasses not only verbal forms such as spoken words but also nonverbal forms which include facial expressions, body movements and gestures. Effective communication conforms to a person’s culture, ethnicity, age, psychological development and spiritual and religious beliefs in order to be understood properly. As today’s health care moves to a patient-centered approach, communication among nurses and patients is a top priority. This paper will focus on effective communication among children in the health care setting in relation to their psychosocial developmental stage.
Due to developmental stages, children have been categorized into different groups based on their age. According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2005), infants are defined as the age of birth to 12 months old, toddlers are defined as 12-36 months of age, preschoolers are defined as 3-6 years of age, school-age children are defined as 6-12 years of age and adolescents are defined as 12-18 years of age. In correlation with the defined age groups, Erik Erickson described the development of identity of the self through successive stages that unfold throughout the life span (Erickson, 1968, 1995; Erickson & Erickson 1998). He established Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development stating a person needs to establish trust in self, others and self-worth. Communication has a direct association with developmental stages due to the ability of the brain to process information as well as the context in which the patient can effectively communicate. Nurses need to be cognizant ...


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...mes. Information should be provided to them as they request it and they should be allowed to make decisions about their health care as long as it correlates with their guardian’s choices. Since they are unsure of themselves, a nurse should use problem solving to assist them in making choices (Potter & Perry, 2013).
In conclusion, communication is fundamental in all human interactions. It needs to be conformed to the specific interaction according to a person’s culture, ethnicity, age and religious and spiritual beliefs. Erik Erickson has established psychosocial stages of development that need to be included in effectively communication with people of different age groups. Communication with children should be focused on their developmental stages and should be assessed to determine the children’s appropriate progression through the previously mentioned stages.

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