Effect of List Position on Free Recall Essay

Effect of List Position on Free Recall Essay

Length: 787 words (2.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

In our daily lives, we constantly try to store and retrieve information from our memory. Sometimes the retrieval process is quite simple, while other times it seems to be almost impossible. An experiment was done to investigate the effect of list position on free recall. The serial position effect refers to the U-shaped pattern presentation on a free recall task. The accuracy of item recall depends on the order that the stimulus is presented. The serial position curve is an example of how the recency and primacy effect appears to have influence on recall. Primacy effect results from initial observations and it is believed that the first few items of the list is remembered the second best. The recency effect results from the final observations and it is believed that these are the items that are recalled the best. The regency and primacy effect lends support to the interference theory. This theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of interfering information with the recall information. There are two aspects to this theory- retroactive interference and proactive interference. Retroactive interference occurs when a participant has difficulty recalling old information due to the interference of newly learned information. The primacy effect is subjected to the retroactive interference. In contrast, proactive interference occurs when a participant has difficulty learning new information due to the already learned information. The recency effect is subjected proactive interference.
Methods
Once the trial begins, string of ten letters is presented. Once the sequence of letters are presented, a keypad containing letters appear on the right hand side. The participant’s task is to try to recall the letters presented in any...


... middle of paper ...


...to recover cups from drawers while memorizing the letters inside the cups. The first two experiments used forward serial recall while the third experiment used free recall. The study conducted conflicted with the results of serial position curve. In this study, the recency effect was eliminated and the primacy effect was attained. Although previous studies were able to show that the recency effect can eliminated if there is a sufficient amount of interference after learning, the same reasoning could not be applied in this study, as the perceptual task was not preformed longer here. These findings provide evidence that the recency effect was eliminated due to motor interference. This study suggests that demanding motor tasks effects memory due to proactive interference. Thus, Serial position experiment can aid I adjusting our current knowledge about memory.




Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Serial Position Effect on Word Recall Essay

- The serial position effect has been studied extensively for many years. Researchers have designed a variety of different studies in order to analyze and explain both, the primacy and the recency effect. The primacy effect is the tendency for the first items presented in a series of words to be recalled more easily, or to be more influential than those presented at the end of the list. On the other end, there is also the recency effect. The recency effect is the tendency to recall the items located at the end of the list....   [tags: word recall, primacy effect, recency effect]

Better Essays
1521 words (4.3 pages)

Free Recall and Memory Essay

- In daily life, memory is used all the time. When we go to buy things, we would remember the list of items what we are going to buy. At school, we would also need to have revision in order to remember the materials for examination. Or even, when we meet friends, we would also need to recall their names. Thus it is important to know and understand how we remember such things so that we can effectively recall them when necessary. Obviously, we do not need to remember the exact position or order of things in daily life....   [tags: free recall, memory, psychology,]

Better Essays
788 words (2.3 pages)

Primacy Effect on Super Bowl Commercials Essay

- Summary: Serial position effects have been reviewed extensively in cognitive psychology research (Cowan et al, 2002). When people are shown a list of items, they are more liable to recollect the items presented either at the commencement of the list or at the cessation. This occurrence was termed the primacy and recency effects (Stewart et al., 2004). Serial position effects can alter a consumer’s recollection which in turn can alter their behavior when purchasing items. Although this is true, past research has not investigated or used primacy and recency effects for marketing purposes....   [tags: cognitive psychology research]

Better Essays
1600 words (4.6 pages)

The Effect of Different Types of Organized Lists on Word Recall Essay

- The present study aimed to measure the effect of different types of organized lists on recall. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups and was presented with either a list of words organized Alphabetically (N=10) under the words corresponding letters or words organized in a Schedule (N=11), categorized under ellipses labeled with parts of a day-"Morning", "Afternoon", and "Evening" . Each list contained the same 90 words sans the organization of the list. Participants in both groups studied their respective list and recalled as many words as they could remember by writing them down afterwards in both trials under a restricted period of time....   [tags: categorical, alphabetical list, organization]

Better Essays
2488 words (7.1 pages)

The Effect of Motivation on False Word Recall in the DRM Paradigm Essay

- The experiment I intend to conduct will analyze the effects of motivation on false word recall in the DRM paradigm. The DRM paradigm has been extensively analyzed, and it has been concluded that participants readily recall words that are associated with presented lists, however, not presented in the lists. This phenomenon is known as false recall. I am interested if the presence of a secondary reinforcer will affect the proportion of false word recall. I reviewed three studies that I believe are pertinent to my experiment....   [tags: memory, drm paradigm, false recall]

Better Essays
1519 words (4.3 pages)

The Effect of Imagery on Recall Essay

- The Effect of Imagery on Recall Introduction: In cognitive psychology there are many ways in which people can enhance memory - mnemonics. This study is based on how imagery helps memory. Imagery is the use of mental representations of real life objects and action. This only takes place in the mind and is not physically present. There are examples of tests that have taken place to see how effective mnemonics using imagery are: Wollen et al. in 1972 carried out an experiment using paired images and manipulating them to be interacting or not interacting e.g....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
1919 words (5.5 pages)

The Effect of Musical Complexity and Familiarity on Serial Recall Essay

- Students study and do work in different ways. For example, some may prefer to practice flashcards, while another might prefer to create pneumonic devices. One common study aid is to listen to music. One would assume that music would act as a great distractor to the learning process, yet it continues to be a popular way to study. In fact, a common belief is that the music increases focus and eliminates distracting background sounds. However, music’s impact on memory, as opposed to attention and focus, is usually not considered....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

Better Essays
1201 words (3.4 pages)

An Example Of The Serial Position Effect Essay

- 1. The faster you read the more your short term or working memory has to try to keep up. It will in tern drop some information as an example of the serial position effect. You 'll end up recalling bits of what you read, such as the first part and the last thing you read where the middle part is lost. There are effective encoding strategies you can implement to boost memory recall, by giving attention and conscious effort into what you are learning for effortful processing. Rehearsal can be effective when using conscious repetition of information....   [tags: Memory, Memory processes, Short-term memory]

Better Essays
1112 words (3.2 pages)

The Effect of Attitude on the Recall of Personal Histories Essay

- The Effect of Attitude on the Recall of Personal Histories It is believed that a person’s attitude influences their memory. Many researchers have conducted experiments on this hypothesis. It has been determine that attitude does have an effect on memory; however, there has been discrepancies in the research results to what extent am individual’s attitude has on recall of past behavior (Aronson, 2012, pp. 164-165). Research done in 1943 by Levine and Murphy indicated that people tend to remember information that supports their social attitude rather than information that does not (Aronson, 2012, pp....   [tags: memory, behavior, reaction, hedonic states ]

Better Essays
2051 words (5.9 pages)

Essay on Effects of the Media on the California Recall Election

- Effects of the Media on the California Recall Election What the Recall Election Means for the Presidential Election From rags to riches, Conan to the Terminator, actor to governor, Arnold Schwarzenegger has lived a very adventurous life recently turning into the political realm. Now, as the governor of California, Schwarzenegger has a tremendous task on his hands. California is currently experiencing a crisis in its budget and economy as well as an energy problem. These issues and others were the reason Republicans pushed for a vote to have an election to possibly recall the former governor Gray Davis....   [tags: Essays Papers]

Free Essays
3489 words (10 pages)