Having at least one parent who enacts in physical violence, psychological aggression, or high levels of other conflictual behaviors toward their adult partner has a positive correlate to child behavior difficulties and young children are severely impacted by violence within their families (Ybarra, Wilkens, & Lieberman). One of the major setbacks experienced by preschoolers who witness domestic violence is their impaired verbal ability. Three to five year old children exposed to domestic violence display lower verbal abilities than their non-exposed peers. There is a 4% variation on young children’s IQ when they are exposed to domestic violence which calculates to an average reduction of eight points. This IQ setback fo...
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Johnson, V & Lieberman, A. (2011). Variations in Behavior Problems of Preschoolers Exposed to Domestic Violence: The Role of Mothers’ Attunement to Children’s Emotional Experiences. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 297-308
Lieberman, A. (2011). Ghosts and Angels: Intergenerational Patterns in the Transmission
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Newman & Newman. (2012). Development Through Life A Psychosocial Approach.
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