Contributing Factors to The Development of Osteoarthritis, Then and Now.

Contributing Factors to The Development of Osteoarthritis, Then and Now.

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In paleopathology the human remains found, in archaeological sites, are studied to find out what form of activities our early ancestors were doing, what they were eating, and the diseases that such acts caused. It is because of the fine preservation of human remains (bones), in archaeological sites, that we are able to analyze them and figure out the different types of diseases that were present; along with the contributing factors that helped them develop. In Paleopathology, studies show that numerous amounts of factors like old age and stress at the joint surface, due to constant/daily activities, can cause degenerative joint diseases. The most common degenerative joint disease is Osteoarthritis and has been linked to an abundance of cases (Larsen and Ruff, 306; Roberts and Manchester, 136; Rojas-Sepulveda et al., 416; Weiss and Jurmain, 437); cases which continue to support the fact that osteoarthritis is caused by an increase in stress inducing activities at the joint surface over time (as we age). Based on ancient findings and recent cases of osteoarthritis, it is safe to say that the adoption of new and more stressful activities in our daily lives helps develop the degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis, as time progresses. This can best be seen and explained with the introduction of more laborious work/mechanical loading, sports, age, weight, and stress/improper use of joints like long periods of squatting (Bridges, 387; Dahaghin et al., 1337; Dumond et al., 3118; Larsen and Ruff, 298; Roberts and Manchester, 138; Rojas-Sepulveda et al., 416; Schrader, 64; Weiss and Jurmain, 441).
Osteoarthritis is the degenerative joint disease that affects the synovial joints (Roberts and Manchester, 136). Degenerative joint diseases...

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... Stresses of Agriculture in the Foraging-to-Farming Transition in Eastern North America, in Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture (eds R. Pinhasi and J. T. Stock), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
Roberts, C. A. and Manchester, K. (2005) ’Archaeology of disease.’ Stroud: Sutton Publishing.
Rojas-Sepúlveda, C., Ardagna, Y. and Dutour, O. (2008), Paleoepidemiology of vertebral degenerative disease in a Pre-Columbian Muisca series from Colombia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 135: 416–430.
Schrader, S. A. (2012), Activity patterns in New Kingdom Nubia: An examination of entheseal remodeling and osteoarthritis at Tombos. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 149: 60–70.
Weiss, E. and Jurmain, R. (2007), Osteoarthritis revisited: a contemporary review of aetiology. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 17: 437–450.

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