Comparison of Adaptations for Nectar Feeding in Hummingbirds and American Leaf-Nosed Bats

Comparison of Adaptations for Nectar Feeding in Hummingbirds and American Leaf-Nosed Bats

Length: 1371 words (3.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

The coevolution of flowering plants and their pollinators has filled the earth with a diversity of life-forms: a quarter-million species of plants, and almost as many animal pollinators, including at least 1,200 vertebrates. Most tropical and subtropical plants are pollinated by insects, a small but ecologically and economically important group of plants are pollinated by birds and mammals(Devy and Davidar, 2003). Bats and birds have families within their orders that are nectar feeding, both these groups have developed similar traits for this ecological niche. Nectar feeding has evolved at least three times in birds and twice in bats. Since birds have been heavily studied in this area, looking at the evolution of hummingbird nectar feeding traits is quite easy. Nectar feeding in bats has not been studied to a great extent and it is still being determined where the divergence happened in the evolutionary line, the leaf-nosed bats have the most research on nectar feeding. Hummingbirds are within the order Apodiformes which also include swifts, their family is Trochilidae, which includes all hummingbirds. Leaf-nosed bats are within the order Chiroptera, which include all bats, their family is Phyllostomidae(leaf-nosed bats), which includes the new world nectar and fruit feeding bats. These traits can be seen as functionally convergent yet that are not anatomically convergent. When looking at the morphological differences between animals, it’s comparing the structure, while looking at the physiological differences it’s comparing the function of these structures. Looking at hummingbirds and leaf-nosed bats tongues, their structures are very different while the function is very similar. Another unique adaptation the hummingbird and lea...


... middle of paper ...


...ectar production in a tropical ecosystem. The biology of nectaries (ed. by B. Bentley and T. Elias), pp. 30–79. Columbia University Press, New York.

Paton, D. C., & Collins, B. G. (1989). Bills and tongues of nectar‐feeding birds: A review of morphology, function and performance, with intercontinental comparisons. Australian Journal of Ecology, 14(4), 473-506.

Pellmyr, O. (2002) Pollination by animals. Plant–animal interactions: an evolutionary approach (ed. by C.M. Herrera and O. Pellmyr), pp. 157–184. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.

Schuchmann, K. L. (1999). Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds). Handbook of the birds of the world, 5, 468-680.

Voigt, C. C., & Winter, Y. (1999). Energetic cost of hovering flight in nectar-feeding bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) and its scaling in moths, birds and bats. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 169(1), 38-48.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Nectar in a Sieve by Kamala Markandaya Essay

- Kamala Markandaya employs herself with the basic concern of an environmentalist or ecologist by lamenting over the destruction of landscape with in her literary milieu. Eco criticism or eco critics endeavor to speak for nature and thereby try to understand and address the problems of human cohabitation with nature. It investigates how the artist utilizes nature literally and metaphorically. Markandaya’s debut novel Nectar in a Sieve, recoup and retrieve the mislaid connection between man and land....   [tags: Nectar in a Sieve]

Powerful Essays
2172 words (6.2 pages)

Nectar in a Sieve by Kamala Markanday Essay examples

- In Kamala Markanday's Nectar in a Sieve, Rukmani is portrayed as a positive woman and provides the ideal sufferer and nurturer. Rukmani displays suffering, strength, and a positive outlook throughout out the book. Even after all the blows she receives, poverty, famine, her husbands infidelity, and the deaths of her sons, she accepts the blows and then moves on, not spending very much time on the problem. Rukmani's relationship with Nathan, her husband, is the center of her emotional life. When she finds out Nathan has slept with another woman, she doesn't throw a fit or start yelling like most women would about the man who has betrayed her....   [tags: Nectar in a Sieve]

Free Essays
278 words (0.8 pages)

Colonialism and Imperialism in Nectar in a Sieve Essay

- Imperialism in Nectar in a Sieve The characters in the book Nectar in a Sieve had to deal with Western imperialism and they had to adapt to the changing ideas associated with Western imperialism. Throughout the book Rukmani had to struggle with her beliefs and how to cope with these changes. From the beginning Rukmani coped with these changes, from culture to her way of life, until the end of the book where even then her life was not through being changed. In the first instance Rukmani had to deal with a husband that was several castes below her....   [tags: Nectar Sieve Essays]

Powerful Essays
785 words (2.2 pages)

Value of Suffering in Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve Essay

- Value of Suffering in Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve   Kamala Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve portrays its positive woman characters as ideal sufferers and nurturers. "[T]he cause of her suffering springs mainly from poverty and natural calamity. The women are from the rural sections of society. They are the daughters of the soil and have inherited age-old traditions which they do not question. Their courage lies in meek or at times cheerful way [sic] of facing poverty or calamity" [Meena Shirdwadkar, Image of Woman in the Indo-Anglian Novel (New Delhi: Sterling, 1979), 49]....   [tags: Nectar Sieve Essays]

Powerful Essays
1156 words (3.3 pages)

Essay about A Comparison of American and Canadian Education

- I found the Differences and similarities of both educational systems very interesting. The United States educational system is has three levels however; some school districts may subdivide elementary and secondary students to create separate schools at the middle and junior high level. Once a child turns five they begin kindergarten and stay in elementary until they graduate. From there they attend junior high, grades 5 through 8. All students enter into High School for grades 9-12 and if they are successful, they graduate with a high school diploma and enter the workforce or pursue higher education....   [tags: canada, american Education, schools]

Powerful Essays
860 words (2.5 pages)

Comparison of the American and French Revolutions Essay

- Comparison of the American and French Revolutions The American and French revolutions both compare and contrast in their origins and outcomes; both revolutions began due to the common peoples need to obtain independence and liberty from an oppressive government. The American Revolution was triggered by the American colonists need for financial independence from the overpowering nation of Great Britain, while the French revolution was a struggle to gain social equality among the masses. Although the American and French Revolutions were fought over the same ideas, the American Revolution is considered more “conservative” than the French....   [tags: American French History France War Essays]

Powerful Essays
1017 words (2.9 pages)

Role of The Tannery in the novel Nectar in a Sieve Essay

- Question: What role does the tannery, in Rukmani’s city, have throughout the book. Explain. Also, be sure to discuss what effect it had on the people. In almost every novel, there is at least one culprit or menace. He or she usually causes problems and in more exciting works, ends up murdering one of the protagonists. Hence, in the erratic novel Nectar in a Sieve, which is set in India during the early 1950’s, there has been a troublemaker, just hidden and extremely indirect in his actions. “What’s his name?” one might ask....   [tags: essays research papers]

Powerful Essays
1221 words (3.5 pages)

Lab Report: Bramble Leaf Morphology Essay

- B. IMPLEMENTING SUN SITE SHADE SITE Thickness of bramble leaf/ mm 0.31 0.30 0.25 0.26 0.31 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.33 0.32 0.29 0.25 0.35 0.34 0.27 0.27 0.29 0.25 0.29 0.32 0.25 0.33 0.36 0.31 0.37 0.34 0.27 0.36 0.28 0.29 0.22 0.17 0.24 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.18 0.16 0.22 0.16 0.19 0.22 0.19 0.17 0.19 0.17 0.19 0.20 0.16 0.22 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.15 0.20 0.16 0.21 0.19 0.18 Mean bramble leaf thickness / mm 0.30 0.19 Light Intensity / mV At 10:30 7.81 At 13:00 8.34 At 15:30 7.65 At 10:30 3.89 At 13:00 4.02 At 15:30 3.76 Mean light intensity/mV 7.93 3.89 Aspect of Site South East South East Results In order to investigate the effect of light intensity on bramble leaf morph...   [tags: essays research papers]

Powerful Essays
5973 words (17.1 pages)

Nectar In A Sieve Essay

- Nectar in a Sieve is a work of literature written in the mid 1900s. This work describes the effect that modernization and industrialization had on the farming families of India. During this time many traditional values had to be overturned by the people in order to keep up with the changing times. Many farmers lost their land and many people died of starvation due to bad harvests and inflating prices on goods. This novel specifically describes the life of a woman, Rukmani, and how her family was affected and the activities she and her family had to perform in order to survive....   [tags: Kamala Markandaya]

Free Essays
1039 words (3 pages)

Leaf-cutting Ants Essay examples

- One of the most little known species of ants in North America is the leaf-cutter ant. This is mainly because it lives in tropical environments and it is not aggressive to animals or humans if not disturbed. The leaf cutting ant is a social insect. Alone the ant is virtually helpless but with the colony it can be a thing feared by animal and human alike. The leaf-cutting ants have a very important role in the tropical forest. They create and manipulate the environment around them. They also can do major damage....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

Powerful Essays
6329 words (18.1 pages)