Tiger (Panthera tigris) is one of the best-known large mammals and the largest living cat. However, their numbers in the wild are decreasing significantly. According to Seidensticker et al. (2010), there are three subspecies becoming extinct since the 1940s. Particularly, Panthera tigris sumatrae or also known as Sumatran tiger is now listed as critically endangered, with around 300 individuals proposed to be living in the wild (Seidensticker et al., 2010). Nowadays, tigers are facing serious conflict with humans over resources in their natural habitat as human activity largely causing their decline. In addition to in situ efforts, wildlife parks and zoos play an important role in the conservation of this species. Nowadays, it is believed that there are more tigers in captivity, including wildlife parks, zoos, and circuses compared to in the wild (Szokalski, 2012). Thus, it appears opportune to explore what is the best practices for captive management in San Diego Zoo and Malacca Zoo, in order to obtain a greater understanding of how to improve their lives in captivity.
San Diego Zoo is a 100-acre park located just north of downtown San Diego in Balboa Park. The zoo is a home to over 3700 endangered and rare animals representing more than 650 species and subspecies (Zoological Society of San Diego, 2014). The zoo was established by Harry M. Wegeforth, M. D. on October 2, 1916. Malacca Zoo is a 54-acre zoological park located in the town of Ayer Keroh in the state of Malacca, Malaysia. More than 1200 animals of 215 species can be found at the Malacca Zoo. The zoo was established in 1963, but its management was later taken over by the Department of Wildlife and Nat...
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San Diego Zoo. (2013). Computer models help manage deadly disease. Retrieved from http://www.sandiegozooglobal.org/what_we_do_preventing_disease/at_the_zoo/computer_models_help_manage_deadly_disease/
Schaul, J. C. (2012, November 2). Interview with San Diego Zoo’s Animal Enrichment Expert-Dr. Lance Miller. News Watch. Retrieved from http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2012/11/02/interview-with-san-diegos-zoos-animal-enrichment-expert-dr-lance-miller/
Szokalski, M. S., Litchfield, C. A., & Foster, W. K. (2012). Enrichment for captive tigers (Panthera tigris): Current knowledge and future directions. Retrieved from http://www.zoossa.com.au/__files/f/301261/Enrichment%20for%20captive%20tigers%20(Panthera%20tigris).pdf
Zoological Society of San Diego. (2014). About San Diego Zoo Global. Retrieved from http://www.sandiegozoo.org/disclaimers/aboutus.html
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