A Report About The Jeddo Tunnel Essay examples

A Report About The Jeddo Tunnel Essay examples

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]. For example, the Jeddo Tunnel is composed of an extensive system of drainage tunnels discharges between 175,000 and 270,000 m3/d [Wood, 1996]. AMD occurs due to mining activities where previously hidden sulfides are now exposed to air and water, creating acidic sulfur-rich wastewaters. The wastewaters also contain elevated concentrations of metals, in particular iron [Johnson and Hallberg, 2005; Schweinfurth, 2009]. The sulfide rich, acidic water from the abandoned flooded mines, emerges as acid mine drainage from tunnels, air shafts, fractures in steam channels, and other low points in the previously mined area. Surface water that is losts to the flooded mines is often regained further downstream where AMD resurges, which damagesdamaging the environment even more during periods of drought.

1.2) Chemistry of Abandoned Mine Drainage
In AMD, as a result of underground coal mining, the sulfur-containing material is primarily pyrite, FeS2, which is the most abundant sulfide mineral on Earth [Johnson and Hallberg, 2005]. When pyrite reacts with oxygen and water, sulfur is oxidized to form a sulfate ion (eqn. 1). The newly formed ferrous ion (Fe+2) readily oxidizes to form a relativity insoluble ferric ion (Fe+3) in the presence of oxygen (eqn. 2). The ferric ion is limited due to the pH of the water. If the pH is greater than 3, iron (III) hydroxide is formed (eqn. 3), otherwise known as “yellow boy” [Cravotta and Kirby, 2002]. The Fe(OH)3 precipitates out of the water and forms a layer at the bottom of the stream beds making the waters appear to be yellow-brown in color.
FeS2 + 3.5 O2 + H2O → Fe+2 + 2 SO4-2 + 2 H+ (1)
Fe+2 + 0.25 O2 + H+ → Fe+3 + 0.5 H2O (2)
Fe+3 + 3 H2O → Fe(OH)3 + 3 H+...


... middle of paper ...


...the water.






Figure 4. Schematic of treatment pond containing spent mushroom compost and limestone. Water pathways are represented by arrows. Adapted from Dietz et.al. Consulting and Rose & Dietz 2002. (add in source)

AMD enters the pond (Figure 5a) and flows downward through the compost and limestone layers to drain pipes that transport the treated water to the next pond. The treated water mixes with overflow non-treated AMD (Figure 5b) and the process repeats itself until ultimately exiting the treatment system at a higher pH and lower metal concentrations. In 2007, the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance reported changes in the influent and effluent water of the system. From the entrance point to the exit point of the water, the pH rose from 4.2 to 7.2, iron dropped by 27 mg/L to 0.2 mg/L and sulfate concentrations were reduced from 395 mg/L to 80 mg/L.

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