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    EC Law

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    EC LAW ASSIGNMENT Gary Slapper states ¡°that ever since the UK joined the European Community it has progressively, but effectively passed the the power to create laws which have effect in this country to the wider European institutions such¡±(Slapper`99 P.33) So in all practical terms the UK`s legislative, executive and judiciary¡¯s powers are in the main controlled by and operated within the framework of the European community laws. The increasing importance of Uk judges to consider the issues

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    The Importance of the Concept of Citizenship in the Development of EC Law After Maastricht Freedom of movement for persons and the abolition of controls at internal frontiers form part of a wider concept, that of the internal market in which it is not possible for internal frontiers to exist or for individuals to be hampered in their movements. The concept of the free movement of persons has changed in meaning since its inception. The first provisions on the subject referred merely to

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    Public Law

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    Public Law Constitutionalism is the organisation of power within a government to prevent the over-centralization, and possible abuse of state power. Hence, by doing so, upholding the fundamental civil rights of the public. Such beliefs may be manifested within a written document-a constitution, which aims to enact these beliefs by outlining certain terms which the government formed must adhere to. Such terms may address the distribution of power within a government by specifying the organs

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    The Role of General Principles in E.U. Law as Opaque and Uncertain Since the founding European Community Treaties of the 1950’s there has been a noticeable evolution in regards to the lack of provisions concerning the protection of human rights in the conduct of the Community affairs. Primarily this evolution was the work of The Court of Justice, who stated that “the ‘general principles of EC law’ include protection for fundamental rights which are part of the common constitutional traditions

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    stressing that this blacklist is an undivided part of the UCPD, hence, the EC must follow a legislative procedure for revising EC Directive in order to amend the list. The complication in procedure might be to diminish the modification of the Directive because it will lead to the legal uncertainty in contrast with the Directive’s

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    The doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty is about the relationship between the parliament and the courts. Parliamentary sovereignty is a principle of the UK constitution; it is the highest authority in the UK. Parliament can repeal or amend any law it wishes. Thus through the procedure of the House of Commons and the House of Lords passing the legislation to the monarch and the monarch gives assent. In result, making the legislation and no court or higher body has legal power to declare the legislation

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    How Does High Court Work

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    of the UK Parliament. It assumes a fundamental part in making and molding laws and checking and testing the legislature. Likewise The House of Lords is the second council of the UK Parliament. It lives up to expectations with the House of Commons to: make laws check and test the administration's activities, and give a gathering of autonomous mastery It is the Court's obligation of Justice to guarantee that the law is seen in the translation and utilization of the Treaties of the European

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    Refugees´ Rights to Life

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    of Mexico. The hosing country, after grating entrance to the refugees from Los Angeles- will become (under the International Refugee Law) responsible in providing shelter, protection and other needs we as refugees might have (Jastram & Ach... ... middle of paper ... ... http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/refugee_en.pdf Circle of rights (2000). Refugees and ECS Rights. Economic, Social and Cultural rigts activism: a training Resource. Retrieved from: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/IHRIP/circle/modules/module7

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    Marijuana should be legal in all states for recreational, and medical use. Many may ask, what is marijuana? Marijuana is a drug that alters your brain , and gives the drug user a trip. This psychoactive drug has been topping the charts in modern society. The use of marijuana has tripled in society today. There are millions of people around the country that try marijuana for the first time on a day to day basis, which is the leading cause to the huge drug epidemic the country as a whole is currently

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    Judicial Review Essay

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    reviewed by the judiciary; which also has the power to render them invalid. The acts of the state may be annulled by the power of judicial review, exercised by certain courts when they are found to be non-compliant to higher power, such as constitutional laws. Therefore, the concept of judicial review essentially represents the accountability mechanisms which form part of the modern governmental system (where various governmental branches are checked by the judiciary). Interpretations of this principle

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    The level of protection for LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender) individuals as a protected class in human rights law has been put into question in recent years. Article 2, paragraph 2 of the ICESCR says the following: The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to guarantee that the rights enunciated in the present Covenant will be exercised without discrimination of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property

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    The Sources of English Law In UK there are three main sources of English law, Legislation (Statue Law), Common Law (Judge-made Law) and the European Communities law. English Law was historically based on customs and social traditions. Today Custom Law is a part of Common Law, notably being in cases where there was no judicial precedent but which were known to exist since time memorial (i.e. since 1189). Many of these laws such as the Fisherman's Case (1894) 2 East PC 661( http://wilmington

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    The Data Protection Act

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    personal data to one company to the other so that were a danger in case someone tries to access some ones personal details with out permission. The Data Protection Act has 8 principles they are; 1) It must be collected and used fairly with in the law 2) It must only be held and used for the reasons given to the Information Commissioner 3) It can only be used for those registered purposes and only be disclosed to those people mentioned in the register entry. You cannot give it away or sell

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    Acts of Parliament as Public Law Acts of parliament are considered to be the highest form of law in England. The reason for this is constitutional. Under England's unwritten constitution, parliament is seen as sovereign. As a result, its enacted will, in the form of Acts of parliament, cannot be challenged in the courts. However, in practice there are legal, political and moral limitations on this sovereignty, which will be discussed in some detail in the following pages. An act of parliament

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    PIL

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    its adjacent Greek ‘Macedonia’ province. However the sharing of name variations between countries is not unique. That Greece’s domestic political sensitivities should override FYRM’s sovereign right is fallacious and unprecedented in international law. Further, over 133 countries including four permanent members of the United Nations (UN) Security Council (SC) recognise FYRM’s constitutional name. With continued debate, and with Greece’s economic embargo towards FYRM, the parties accepted UN arbitration

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    parties and is enforceable by law a contract is created through the process of offer acceptance and consideration. Is like promises but with legally enforceable agreement. It will only form a valid contract under these several fundamental requirements. Requirement of contract a) An agreement between two or more parties having the capacity to contract b) The contract also needs voluntarily entered into c) There are need to be an exchange or bargain d) It cannot violate the law or current policy e)

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    identify. Despite the fact that expert draftsmen carefully draw up Acts of Parliament, there are many occasions in which the courts find that the implications of a statute for the case before them are not at all clear. F.A.R. Bennion (Statute Law, 1990) has identified a number of factors, which may cause this uncertainty: 1. The draftsman may refrain from using certain words that he or she regards as necessarily implied. The problem here is that the users may not realise that this is the

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    Recent Political Events have shown that Parliament is no longer completely sovereign. In the Uk Parliament is the ultimate law making body. According to A.V Dicey who gave a classic definition of the Parliament; ‘Under the English constitution right to make or unmake any law, Parliament will not be bound by a predecessor and no other bodies like the Courts can question the decisions made by the Parliament’ . Even before Dicey’s Parliament was considered to be an ultimate and superior body of the

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    common law are among the oldest established legal systems and systems of law in the world. English common law is so cold because it was ancient Kings law applied commonly throughout the kingdom of England replacing the customs and laws of the former kingdoms. England was a single kingdom by 1000 a day. After the Norman invasion of 1066, the common law emerged in the 12th century, because the Norman kings used the existing governmental infrastructure and say judges to spirit the Kings law, replacing

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    declaring the direct effect and supremacy of European Law. But the linchpins of the European legal system are the national courts of the member states. National court references provide the ECJ with opportunities to expand the reach and scope of EC law, opportunities that would not exist if the ECJ had to rely on member states or the Commission to raise infringement suits. In applying European law supremacy, national judges have made European law enforceable in the national realm’ In order

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