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Research on Mathematical Calculations of Bonds Betwen Amino Acid Residues and CO2 Molecules - Cundari et al presented a powerful computational prediction system based on mathematical calculations of bonds between amino acid residues and CO2 molecule (Cundari et al. 2009). In their study, binding energies for CO2 and amino acid residues of Rubisco active site differ between different enzyme species that belongs to different organisms. It has been suggested that most of the hydrogen bonding in α-helices goes toward stabilizing the tightly coiled helix in loop 6 of Rubisco, whereas in contrast the edge of a β-sheet is open to hydrogen bonding, the binding energies are shown in table 1 (Cundari et al....   [tags: molecules, science,] 777 words
(2.2 pages)
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The Stages of Molecules in a Cell - ... 2. Fructose will exhibit net diffusion into the cell. 3. Glucose will exhibit net diffusion out of the cell. 3. Size of the cell, concentration gradient of the cell, carrier protein of the membrane influence whether a molecule will be able to pass through a biological membrane. If the molecule is too large, it will require some kind of transport protein that is surrounded in the plasma member to allow it to pass through. Large molecules typically carry charges, so that may also affect the process....   [tags: osmosis, filtration, transport] 730 words
(2.1 pages)
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Questions and Anwers on DNA and Molecules - Question1 What are Eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are known to be the organisms which have double membrane or membrane bounded, such as the nucleus, mitochondria than in plant cell this will include chloroplast, examples of this eukaryotes are, animals, plants, fungi and protozoans. Genome is defined as entire genetic material of an individual. All eukaryotes have mitochondrial genome of which it is very small in size and circular in shape, meaning that depend on the organism the genome will vary in size since others are small, so the specific size normally range from 10Mb in length to 100 000 Mb in higher eukaryotes....   [tags: eukaryotes, genomes] 2593 words
(7.4 pages)
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Structure of the Cell and Bio Molecules - The cell, what is a cell means and what is the structure of it. Everyone knows that it’s the smallest particle in any living organism and it’s responsible for anything that happens in our bodies. As there’s no one know what it functions, what is the structure of the cell and what it is consisted from and what does every part in it functions. So, first of all the theory of a cell is that all organisms are formed from cells which is the structural unit of life and they are raised by division of pre-existing cells, as they can be cultured to produce more cells....   [tags: genetic blueprints] 651 words
(1.9 pages)
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Biology: The Chiral Molecules - ... Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the types of carbon, which is in cylindrical nanostructures form. Nanotubes are one of the members of the fullerene structural family. Their name is obtained from the long hollow structure with the walls formed by one atom thick sheets of carbon, called graphene. The sheets are then rolled at specific and discrete angles, and the combination of the rolling angle and radius decides the nanotube properties. There are several structures of CNT, which is differing in length, thickness, types of helicity and number of layers....   [tags: biomolecules, carbon, nanotubes] 1025 words
(2.9 pages)
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How Water Contributes To The Structure And Behavior Of Biological Molecules - Introduction Water,H2O, is one of the most important chemical compounds on earth, and is commonly referred to as the basis of life on earth, because it is used in all type of chemical and biological processes, e.g. solvent, protein folding, stability of nucleic acids etc. Water is found in 3 states (solid, liquid, and gas), and is the most abundant naturally occurring substance on earth, covering 75% of the earth surface. Structure Water consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atoms, (held together by covalent bonds between the O-H atoms) and 2 lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atom, resulting in the formation of a bent shape with a bond angle of 104.5⁰....   [tags: Chemistry]
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The Behavior of PTCDA Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011) - We have recently reported results of preliminary studies on the behavior of PTCDA molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) at very low coverage (approximately 0.05ML) [A. Tekiel, S. Godlewski, J. Budzioch, M. Szymonski, Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 495304]. There we have focused on the self-assembly process leading to formation of one-dimensional chains oriented along the crystallographic direction (Fig. 8a). These chains can include up to 20 molecules, which are uniformly oriented with their longer axis parallel to the substrate oxygen rows (orientation I – see Fig....   [tags: Chemistry] 844 words
(2.4 pages)
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CuPc Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011) Surface - Figure 6 STM images of CuPc molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) surface, panels a) and b) show sample before annealing, two distinct phases are observed, panels c) and d) illustrate sample after 2 hour annealing at 150°C, only phase II is visible, the amount of molecule dislocations, vacancies and defects is decreased after annealing, panels e) and f) show sample after two-hour annealing at 200°C, when completely new phase III is formed with up-right molecules, bias voltage +3.0V, tunnelling current 2pA....   [tags: Chemistry ] 1548 words
(4.4 pages)
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Active and Passive Transport of Molecules Through Plasma Membrane - ... i The plasma membrane has a phospholipid bilayer which separates the inside (the cytoplasm) and the outside (extracellular fluid and lipid-soluble solutes) of the cell. The fact that the plasma membrane monitors the passage of molecules based on size and solubility constitutes it as semi-permeable. Diffusion can be categorized as either simple diffusion or facilitated diffusion. A similarity between simple and facilitated diffusion is that they are both passive processes and travel from areas of higher concentration to region of lower concentration....   [tags: cells, diffusion, filtration] 645 words
(1.8 pages)
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More Antibody Molecules than Genes in Our Genome - There are more than 1012 different antibody molecules in the human body. How can our body make more antibodies than there are genes in the genome. Explain the genetic rearrangement mechanism to produce the antibody diversity. Immunoglobulins (antibodies) are a group of structurally related proteins produced by plasma cells, secreted into the serum or tissue fluids, and characterized by certain physicochemical and biological properties. Immunoglobulins of mammals can be divided into five major classes, usually called IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD and IgE, which differ physicochemically and immunologically (Zapata & Cooper, 1990)....   [tags: diversity, immunization, mutation]
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Detection Of Biological Molecules - Detection of Biological Molecules Introduction: Without carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen and phosphorus, life wouldn't exist. These are the most abundant elements in living organisms. These elements are held together by covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds. Covalent bonds are especially strong, thus, are present in monomers, the building blocks of life. These monomers combine to make polymers, which is a long chain of monomers strung together. Biological molecules can be distinguished by their functional groups....   [tags: essays research papers] 1482 words
(4.2 pages)
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Organic Molecules Challenge - Organic Molecules Challenge Silicon's Reign as King of Semiconductors There is a revolution fomenting in the semiconductor industry. It may take 30 years or more to reach perfection, but when it does the advance may be so great that today's computers will be little more than calculators compared to what will come after. The revolution is called molecular electronics, and its goal is to depose silicon as king of the computer chip and put carbon in its place. The perpetrators are a few clever chemists trying to use pigment, proteins, polymers, and other organic molecules to carry out the same task that microscopic patterns of silicon and metal do now....   [tags: essays research papers] 2517 words
(7.2 pages)
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Large Molecules In the Structure And Functioning Of Cells - Large Molecules In the Structure And Functioning Of Cells Large biological molecules are found in all cells, in plant and animals cells too. There are many different large biological molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids which are all extremely important to the functioning and structure of living cells. We would not be alive if any of these groups were missing. This signifies their importance. Carbohydrates contain three elements. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) Carbohydrates are found in three forms....   [tags: Papers] 855 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Transfer of Energy During Heating of Large Molecules - The Transfer of Energy During Heating of Large Molecules AIM: The aim of this investigation is, to find out which molecules transfer the most energy. PREDICTION: I predict that as the numbers of particles are increased, the energy transferred will also be increased. We will use methanol, ethanol, propanol, butonol and octanol. The word and symbol equations for these reactions are: Methanol: Methanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water ======================================== C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 +4H20 Ethanol: Ethanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H20 Propanol: Propanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 2C3H7OH + 9O2...   [tags: Papers] 823 words
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Viruses: Complex Molecules Or Simple Life Forms? - Viruses: Complex Molecules or Simple Life Forms. Viruses have been defined as "entities whose genomes are elements of nucleic acid that replicate inside living cells using the cellular synthetic machinery, and cause the synthesis of specialised elements that can transfer the genome to other cells." They are stationaryand are unable to grow. Because of all these factors, it is debatable whether viruses are the most complex of molecules or the simplest life forms. While the definition of living organisms must be adapted, the majority of evidence leads to the classification of viruses as living organisms....   [tags: essays research papers] 752 words
(2.1 pages)
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Comparison of Chemical Composition of Various Food Stuff - Title : Comparison of Chemical Composition of Various Food Stuff Introduction Carbohydrate is a macromolecule that consists of atoms of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen. The carbohydrates or saccharides exists in 4 groups, monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Starch is among one of the polysaccharides and it consists of a large number of units of glucose molecules joined together by glycosidic bonds. Starch consists of two types of molecules , the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin....   [tags: of cells and molecules]
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2474 words
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Deterioration of RNA Study - The current status of the problem The chemical modification in triplex forming oligonucleotides affects the stability of RNA triplex. The incorporation of 2-omethayl-modify residues in a triplex forming oligonucleotides destabilizes and stabilizes triplex formation with RNA and DNA duplex regions (Patterson, Plaxco & Ricci, 2010). The deterioration of RNA triplex formation may be making easy through modulation of van der Waals contact, base stacking backbone pre-organization, geometric compatibility and dehydration energy (Patterson, Plaxco & Ricci, 2010)....   [tags: DNA, Molecules]
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1097 words
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Organic Molecules: Ascorbic Acid - Ancient Times In ancient times, close to 3300 BCE to 100 CE, when many things were being established, for example municipalities and continual cultivation. In Sumaria (in modern Iraq), it was discovered that food, not only allow human beings to stay alive but it has an immense impact on their health. This was an introductory concept that influenced the discovery of Vitamins in general. But this notion was probably already known by even earlier medicine experts, at that time called shaman(Jacks, 2007)....   [tags: continual cultivation, Sumalia, health]
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1794 words
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Mr. Euglena, Photosyntesis and Aerobic Respiration - ... The coenzyme NADP then holds the product of twelve hydrogen atoms (12 H) as 6 NADPH2 to carry to the next process. The three oxygen molecules (3 O2) are then released into the air as a byproduct. The light reaction must happen a second time in order for the second phase of photosynthesis, the dark reaction, to occur. The same cycle of the light reaction then takes place. The result of two light reactions is a total of six oxygen molecules (6 O2) released into the air as byproducts and 12 NADPH2 (24 H) carried over to the dark reaction of photosynthesis....   [tags: adenosine triphosphate molecules (ATP)] 887 words
(2.5 pages)
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Example Science Lesson Plans and Reflection - Lesson Plan 1 Subject: 6th grade Science Standard(s): MS-PS1-1: Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures. 5-PS1-1. Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen. Objective : Content Objectives: Students will be able to develop a ball and stick model to portray simple molecules and extended structures. Key Vocabulary: Molecule Simple Molecules Extended Structures “Di” “Tri” “Tetra” Materials: Aluminum Foil Marshmallows (different colors) /or Gumdrops Toothpicks 12 Science Processes: Classifying, Observing, inferring, communication, Anticipatory Set/Opening/Hook: Distribute pieces of aluminum...   [tags: objectives, guide, molecules] 3292 words
(9.4 pages)
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Functions of Plasmodesmata on Plant Cells - Introduction Cells communicate by transferring molecules from one to another. When a molecule is transferred it creates a reaction which then causes an effect. Within multicellular organisms there is cell-to-cell communication. Direct communication between cells can occur in two ways. One way is cell-cell recognition via interaction between surface proteins. When there is contact between cell surfaces, the proteins on the surface of the cell interact and create a signal. The other way is through cell junctions between adjacent cells....   [tags: molecules, cells, plasma membrane]
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1041 words
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Experiment: The Unique Properties of Water - Group IV Project: Unique Properties of Water There are different properties (anomalies) of water which are unique. The uniqueness of water comes from its molecular structure. The polarity of water molecules is a consequence of hydrogen bonding. The meaning of polarity is that the molecule has both a positively and a negatively charged end, so water has a slight positive and slight negative charge on opposite ends. Water’s polarity is in charge of dissolving other molecules like sugars and ionic compounds....   [tags: Molecules, Cohesion, Density] 893 words
(2.6 pages)
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Investigation of Whether Temperature Affects Enzyme Activity - ... 6. Repeat the stages but changes the temperature of the water used. Apparatus and Materials 1. Bunsen Burner 2. Tripod 3. Gaze 4. Heat Mat 5. Lab Coats 6. Safety Glasses 7. Heavy Duty Beakers 8. Thermometers 9. Black Card 10. 2 per boiling tube 11. 2 per small beakers 12. Test Tube Rack 13. Stopwatch Data Collection & Processing Recording Please see the table on the next page Calculation of the average (values of repeated numbers /4) Calculation of the rate (1/average) ×1000 Table Description On the lined piece of paper is the data that I recorder during the experiment....   [tags: molecules, experiment, reaction] 832 words
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Chemistry: Life at the Molecular Level - In metabolism, complex molecules are degraded into simpler products including amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids. These simpler molecules can subsequently be broken down into the Acetyl CoA intermediate (Voet, D., Voet, J., Pratt, C. 2006. p. 397). Acetyl CoA then enters the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), and is oxidized into carbon dioxide, CO2. During the TCA cycle, NAD+ and FADH are reduced to produce high transfer potential electrons, NADH and FADH2. These NADH and FADH2 molecules are oxidized during oxidation phosphorylation and the electron transport chain and generate water, H2O and ATP (Voet et al....   [tags: calvin cycle, molecules, metabolism]
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The Effects of Varying, Extreme Temperatures and Varying Organic Solvents on a Beet Root Cell Membrane - ... This can be explained because it is the longest chained alcohol when compared to the others that were used in the experiment (Bio. Sciences Dept., 2013). It is theorized that the cell membrane is significantly reformed following the attachment of the 2-propanol to the membrane phospholipids. (Wanderlingh et al., 2010). This change in the membrane could be related to the high amount of leakage recorded by the spectrophotometer, as these changes could rupture the plasma membrane if a sufficient amount of the alcohol is present (Wanderlingh et al., 2010)....   [tags: molecules, hydrophilic, membrane]
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Cells Are Exposed to Reactive Oxygen Species in Oxidative Stress - 2.1 OXIDATIVE STRESS The term oxidative stress is often used to imply a condition in which cells are exposed to excessive levels of either molecular oxygen or chemical derivatives of oxygen called reactive oxygen species; (Kojda et al., 1999). This occurs when molecules of oxygen are reduced to various subunits such as water, the production of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen radicals (Geller, D.A., et al. 1993). On the other hand ROS has different effects on individual blood vessels and also play a very important role on the physiological and pathological aspects of the vessels....   [tags: molecules, biological, disease] 1020 words
(2.9 pages)
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Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the Field of Chemistry - Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the field of Chemistry Thomas Robert Cech is a well-known chemist who used his knowledge of science to discover several theories in order to enhance the study of molecules and atoms in different matters. In summary, Thomas Cech received his PhD degree in Chemistry from the University of California. He was also a lecturer at the University of Colorado where he lectured on chemistry and biochemistry. Cech’s research and hard labour has brought many awards to him and one of the major awards he received is the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1989....   [tags: RNA molecules, dna]
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Radiation Pressure Effect on Polymerization Reactions - A laser trap, or an optical trap, is created by tightly focusing a laser beam with an objective lens of high numerical aperture (NA).1 The trap is formed at the focal point of the objective, which is able to hold a small particle at its center. In other words, a dielectric particle near the focus will experience a force due to the transfer of momentum from the scattering of incident photons. The resulting optical force has two components: a scattering force in the direction of light propagation and a gradient force in the direction of the spatial light gradient....   [tags: Laser Beams, Chemistry, Molecules]
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What are Proteins and What do They Do? - ... “In many proteins, the polypeptide chain is bent at specific sites and the folded back and forth, resulting in the tertiary structure of the protein” (Sadava, 2011, p. 46). Lastly proteins also have a quaternary structure. “The quaternary structure of a protein consists of subunits” (Sadava, 2011, p. 47). “The protein’s quaternary structure results from the ways in which these subunits bind together and interact” (Sadava, 2011, p. 47). In this lab students will analyze unknown proteins, along with their size, and subunits....   [tags: complex molecules, dna, genetics]
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Plants Used for Meditation and Medication - Human beings have used plants, plant constituents, herbal preparations and finished herbal merchandise for hundreds of years, among others as foods as meditative agents as stimulants, narcotics, and hallucinogens for wear and shelter as aromatics, cosmetics, dyes and to arrange toxic arrow- and spearheads for warfare and looking. Growing insights into the chemical structures and mechanisms of action of the pharmacologically active principles of those substances have resulted within the development of variety of life-saving medicine against human diseases....   [tags: herbal, ailments, molecules] 718 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Use of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles - Introduction Proteins accumulate in the nucleus to signal the specific entry of molecules through nuclear pore complex (NPC) [1-3]. This mechanism was observed first in nucleoplasmin, an acidic protein that binds histones H2A and H2B during nucleosome assembly[4-8]. In vertebrates Nuclear pore complex weighs 125Mda in mass and contains 50-100 polypeptides. Thus, for macromolecules to cross the NPC, a signal mediated transport mechanism is required. Although several pathways exist for nuclear transport, classical nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that contain one or more clusters of basic amino acids are well known and characterized [9]....   [tags: Gene, Molecules, Chemistry] 2339 words
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The Use of Nanotechnology in Medicine - Nanotechnology and Medicine What is nanotechnology. Not very commonly discussed, but very commonly used. We use nanotechnology on a day to day basis, smart phones, computers, pads, and now emerging very reputedly in medicine. In the word “Nano” means a billionth (10-9). Nanotechnology is defined as the study of structures between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers in size. How small is a Nano…..really. A Nano concerns objects that are extremely small, bigger than atoms, but smaller than you can see than you can see with a light microscope....   [tags: delivery, molecules, cells] 779 words
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The Process of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance - Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance of proteins (protein NMR) (Wikipedia, 2014) is an important field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is employed to get information about the structure of proteins and their Flexibility. The field was originated and pioneered by Richard R. Ernst and Kurt Wüthrich, and others. NMR measurements are composed of phases. In each phase a separate set of highly specialized techniques are used. First, the sample is prepared accurately. Second is measuring tools....   [tags: protein, molecules, signals] 1421 words
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The Evolution of the Microscope - ... Now by 18th century the microscope were better and easier to use they also became more popular to use with in the scientists. Combining two typed of glass made the chromatic effect, which was also one of the important discoveries. During 1830 Joseph Jackson Lister discovered that putting some weak lenses together at a specific distant the result would be getting no blurry image. 1878 Ernst Abbe he formulates a mathematical theory in which led resolution to the wavelength of light. In 1903 Richard Zsigmondy was able to study objects under the wavelength of light with the help of the ultra microscope....   [tags: lenses, atoms, molecules] 527 words
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The Development of Nanotechnology - The word “Nanotechnology” is defined as the science of working with atoms and molecules to build devices that are extremely small. At first the concept nanotechnology and describing a mater in molecular or atomic scale spread very slowly. In 1867 James Clerk Maxwell proposed an experiment of small entity named Maxwell’s Demon capable of handling person molecules to show that the second law of thermodynamics has only statistical certainty1. After that Richard Adolf Zsigmondy used the nanometer scale for particle size characterization in 1914....   [tags: molecules, manufacturing, atoms] 579 words
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Stephanie Kwolek's Discovery of Kevlar - Stephanie Kwolek was the first to discover and synthesize Kevlar in 1964 at the laboratories in Wilmington. In 1950, Kwolek specialized in creating a solid gas based fibers. She was successful in creating the first monomer that is used to manufacture polybenzamide. From this unstable process that can only stay for a while and this result in acceptable solvent that all allow too be in low temperature polymer. When it is placed in the required state conditions, the polymer will become liquid substance, which is the opposite result of the previous discoveries and experiment....   [tags: molecules, polymer, hardness] 681 words
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QSAR Pharmacophore Model Hypo1 - ... Further we passed these filtered molecules for the docking analysis. 3.6 Molecular Docking study For further refining the retrieved hits and evaluating the binding mode between compounds and proteins, all compounds and compound_1 were docked into the binding site of PDK1[26] (PDB entry:1UU7)[27] by using LigandFit [28] docking method implemented in Discovery Studio 2.5 program package. Before docking the all the molecules, compound_1(most active compound of training set ) was docked in to the active site of PDK1.Compound_1 has shown the docking energy of - 64.5 kcal/mol and RMSD value of 0.841.It showed the hydrogen bond interactions with important residues of like Lys111, Asp 230, Al...   [tags: compounds, molecules, method, docking] 548 words
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Catalysts Used in Cracking - A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. It does not change the equilibrium but instead provides a different pathway. Catalysts usually lower the activation energy. For the cracking process, most of the people in this production utilize alumina (aluminum oxide, AL203) as a catalyst. It functions by decreasing the energy essential to reduce C-C bonds when the larger hydrocarbon molecules are absorbed on the outside of the alumina particles. Catalytic cracking breaks down complex hydrocarbons into simpler molecules in order to boost the quality and quantity of lighter, more desirable products and lessen the amount of residuals....   [tags: Thermal, Molecules, Process] 874 words
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Alkylation of Azole Derivatives - ... The collected product was in a viscous, liquid form; and many efforts were made to purify the product by recrystallization. However, separating two different salts was very difficult, and these attempts were not successful. This same reaction was also repeated at room temperature, but the two reagents did not react. To prevent the diallylation, we followed the same procedure using allyl tosylate. The tosylate group is a less reactive, poorer nucleophile than bromide; therefore, it is less likely to remove the tosyl group....   [tags: synthesis of molecules, green chemistry]
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What´s Food Chemistry? - ... This technique identifies unknowns but is fairly long in its reading along with mediocre accuracy, while showing many impurities; moreover, this technique is quite expensive in affording the actual NMR Spectroscopy equipment and requiring 2-50mg of solid sample to analyze, although recoverable.15 Near-Infrared Spectroscopy focuses on the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from about 800-2500nm, which analyzes molecular implication and vibrations.16 Although these transitions are prohibited by the quantum mechanics selection rules, the molar absorptivity in the near-IR region is typically small.17 This technique penetrates much farther into a sample than other types o...   [tags: spectroscopy, unwanted molecules] 1917 words
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What is Fermentation? - ... You want to fill the conical tube to at least 50 ml of water (Cressy). Take the four conical tubes filled with water and place two in each beaker, to do this you must invert the tube and cover the release hole as to not lose any water (Cressy). Then place the beakers with the tubes in the bath so they can be at the same temperature as the bath (Cressy). Next mark all of your test tubes in number order to be sure which tube contains what concentrations and pH (Cressy). Having mixed a solution to the specifications of 2.5 ml of glucose in all tubes, 3 ml of yeast in 2 tubes of pH 5, 2 tubes of pH 9, and the single pH 7 tube, the remaining two tubes will contain no yeast as they will be neg...   [tags: metabolic process, oxygen molecules]
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Protein Recognition by Synthetic Receptors - Protein Recognition by Synthetic Receptors Proteins are macromolecules made up of one or more chains of amino acids (polypeptide) and each amino acid in a polypeptide chain links by peptide bond. Major biochemical functions of protein include catalysis (enzymes), molecular switches and structural components of cells and organisms. Each organism has a unique amino acid sequence in their protein that is encoded in their genes. Proteins have four levels of structure. Primary structure Twenty, different types of amino acids are present and these amino acids form more than 10000 proteins in human body....   [tags: amino acids, polypeptide chain, molecules]
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Lipids: Essential to Our Body - Lipids can be described as hydrophobic molecules that are soluble in organic solvents (Berg, Stryer, & Tymoczko, 2010). Lipids are important because they are used to store energy, act as structural components for cell membranes, and play a significant role in signal-transduction pathways. There are several classes of lipids – fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, glycolipids, and steroids. Many people have heard about fatty acids, such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, or “essential fats”....   [tags: hydrophobic molecules soluble in organic solvents]
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Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Review of Classes and Role in Mammals - Enzymes play a vital role in biological systems as signaling molecules. Signaling occurs though a chemical reaction that enzymes help catalyze by allowing it to occur through a pathway with lower activation energy (Domin and Waterfield, 1997). Enzymes are made from a chain or chains of amino acids that are linked by peptide bonds, otherwise known as proteins. One particular enzyme pathway of interest is phosphoinositide 3-kinase (P13K). This enzyme is a lipid kinase that has further signaling activity once activated, also known as a cascade induction....   [tags: biological systems, enzymes,signaling molecules]
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Chemistry: What is A Complexometric Titration - Introduction: According to (Khan): A complexometric titration as defined by IUPAC as a volumetric titration where a soluble complex can be formed by titrating a metal ion with a ligand in an aqueous solution and a titrant is one of the reacts used in the titration. [4] M(H2O)n + L = M(H2O)(n-1)L + H20 [4] (Khan): further states, here L are the Ligand and which is formed via the complete replacement of water molecules by other ligands can occur till the formation of the MLn complex. “n” is the coordination number of the metal ion and represents the maximum number of monodentate ligands which can be bound to it [8] Figure 1: The h...   [tags: metal ion, donor atom, molecules]
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Ribozymes - Ribozymes are catalytic molecules that cleave the ribonucleic acid (RNA) at specific sequences (Gesteland et al. 2006). RNA is the nucleic acid that is made in the process of transcription; when the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) anneals, it transcribes itself into a linear stranded molecule called RNA. In order for RNA to synthesise proteins, it requires catalytic enzymes to perform certain chemical reactions. In the past, it was thought that all chemical reactions are catalysed by protein enzymes; however, in the eighties this hypothesis was disproved as Thomas Cech and Sydney Altman discovered that RNA is able to carry out self-catalysing activities which were named as ribozymes because they...   [tags: Biology, Catalytic Molecules, RNA] 1591 words
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The DNA Molecule - The DNA Molecule In the autumn of 1951, James Watson (left) and Francis Crick (right) started work on unravelling the structure of DNA. It was known at the time that DNA was present in the nucleus of every living cell, and that it had something to do with heridity, but without a knowledge of its structure little more could be understood about how it actually worked. They approached the problem with the same methodology that had been pioneered by Linus Pauling, who after years of exhaustive study had earlier discovered that many proteins exhibited a helical structure....   [tags: Papers] 786 words
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What´s The Ozone Layer? - The ozone layer is a deep layer in the Earth’s stratosphere that has an altitude of about 6.2 miles and contains a high concentration of ozone molecules. The ozone layer shields the entire Earth from some of the harmful ultraviolet rays that come from the sun. The Earth’s atmosphere is composed of several layers, but the layer that we live in - the “troposphere” – is where most weather occurs. Above the troposphere is the stratosphere which is where most of the effects caused by ozone holes and global warming originate....   [tags: ultraviolet rays, ozone moleculas] 1258 words
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The Spirit Molecule (DMT): An Endogenous Psychoactive - The Spirit Molecule (DMT): An Endogenous Psychoactive "The feeling of doing DMT is as though one had been struck by noetic lightning. The ordinary world is almost instantaneously replaced, not only with a hallucination, but a hallucination whose alien character is its utter alienness. Nothing in this world can prepare one for the impressions that fill your mind when you enter the DMT sensorium."- McKenna. N,N-dimethyltryptamine(DMT) is a psychoactive chemical in the tryptamine family, which causes intense visuals and strong psychedelic mental affects when smoked, injected, snorted, or when swallowed orally (with an MAOI such as haramaline)....   [tags: Drugs DMT Drug Essays]
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Molecule may be key to nicotine addiction - A single molecule may be partly to blame for nicotine’s addictive allure, a finding that researchers say could lead to potential therapies to help millions of smokers quit a life-threatening habit. More than 4 million people around the globe — 440,000 of them Americans — die from smoking-related causes each year. And, the nicotine-laced smoke damages more than just their lungs. The California researchers not only pinpointed a molecule responsible for nicotine addiction, they also created specialized mice to make it easier to search for other molecules impacted by nicotine addiction....   [tags: essays research papers] 657 words
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Acoustic Waves in Physics - ... [5] After reading the first paragraphs you may be wondering why are acoustic waves so important in normal life or “why would I ever need this equation?’ Acoustic waves are important because sound is all around us. When you think of the word “acoustic” a few words may come to mind. Guitars, stereos, and many other items involve acoustic waves. For example, when the bass on a stereo is turned all the way up you may hear the bass and that will then cause the ground to shake. This is because the greater the amplitude of an acoustic wave the louder the sound it produces....   [tags: variations, moleculas, compression] 678 words
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How Water Is Related To Chemistry - How Water Is Related To Chemistry Water is a polar solvent, its molecule is covalently bonded that makes up for an unequal sharing of the electrons resulting in partially positive and partially negative water molecule. Organic molecules like Ethane and many other molecules are non-polar, that is they neither have a positive nor a negative end. As a result, he individual molecules within the water are greatly interconnected because of the presence of weak hydrogen bonds. Water acts as a universal solvent....   [tags: Molecule, Solvent, Hydrogen]
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Biology: Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ - Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ Research and Rationale Enzymes Enzymes are made up of proteins that are available in every cell of a living plant and animal [9] .Enzymes are very important for biochemical reactions. They act as catalysts and speed up biochemical reactions by using ‘an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy’ [5].Enzymes either starts a chemical reaction or allows it to occur faster [9]. Enzymes do not experience enduring changes therefore; remain unchanged at the end of the reaction [9]....   [tags: triglycerides, energy, molecule] 2578 words
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Structure of Nucleotides and DNA - ... 1. The double helix is untwisted and the corresponding stands are unzipped. 2. The hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken freeing the floating nucleotides join with nitrogenous bases forming hydrogen bonds. This part of the reason for complementary base pairing. 3. Once the new nucleotide are bonded together by the enzyme DNA polymerase, which form complete strands opposite the original strands. 4. Finally, all the nucleotides are joined to form a complete polynucleotide chain using DNA polymerase....   [tags: deoxyribonucleic, molecule, bond] 1142 words
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A Justification of Luca Turin’s Vibrational Theory of Scent - Science is used to explain everything. However, there are some topics which are disputed in the scientific community. One such topic is the proposed question, “How do we, humans, smell?” As for the answer to this question, there are two main theories which should be mentioned. The first is a theory based on the idea that the shape of a molecule determines it’s scent in the human nose (TED). The second such answer is the theory that smell is linked to the vibrational frequency of a molecule (TED)....   [tags: science, molecule, frequency, sense of smell]
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Pet Molecule Lab Assignment - Every molecule known to man has a background story to discovering it. Between 1925-1845, the discovery of anesthetics was very popular. Enflurane was discovered by Ross C. Terrell at Ohio Medical Products. He is known to have created over 700 potential anesthetic compounds (“Basak”). All of his anesthetics were known to be synthesized around 1960 to 1980. Ohio Medical Products were able to successfully produce two anesthetics. The two anesthetics that were developed were isoflurane and enflurane....   [tags: enflurane, anesthesiology]
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DNA Molecule - Haruan Channa striatus is in great demand in the Malaysian domestic fish market. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the genetic diversity and population genetics of Haruan C. striatus are needed for sound management, conservation, stock identification and successful fishing of the species. Haruan, the local name for the snakehead Channa striatus is an obligate freshwater fish of the family Channidae, which has important economic value as food fish, and has pharmacological properties as well as medicinal value (Mat Jais, 1991, 2007a, 2007b; Rahim et al., 2009; Jamaluddin et al., 2011)....   [tags: Biology, The Mitochondrial Cyt B] 648 words
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Antibody Diversity Mechanism - A transposition- like mechanism can be used for other types of DNA rearrangement reactions. Such mechanism is responsible for assembly of gene fragments during development of the vertebrate immune system. Vertebrates have two specialized cells namely T- cells and B-cells that dedicated to recognize the invading organism. B cells produce antibodies that circulate in the bloodstream. T-cell produce cell surface- bound receptor protein called T-cell receptor. These classes of protein able to recognized great diverse invader molecule then starts a cascade event to destruct the invader....   [tags: antibody diversification, DNA, molecule]
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Taking a Closer Look at an Ozone Molecule - INTRODUCTION An ozone molecule contains three of oxygen atoms (O3) which included the molecular oxygen (O2) that is important in our life in order to survive. Ozone is also the form of UV rays (sun) from the upper parts of atmosphere which is called stratosphere. Another name for stratosphere is protective ozone layer because it can help to protect human from the harmful effect of the ultra-violet radiation (UV ray) by absorbing it. But the lower part of atmosphere which name troposphere, can easily causes harmful or damage to a lung tissues of human and also the leaves tissue of plants because of the strong oxidizing agent....   [tags: oxygen, stratosphere, effects on plants]
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The Activation Energy for the Molecule of HALS Reaction using GAUSSIAN 09 via the WebMO Interface - 4.0 Discussion : 4.1 Hypothesis The hypothesis of the reaction, there was similarity by comparing the compound in case nitrogen was neutral and protonated. Table (1) illustrated that there was clearly different in the energy between two cases of that compound by 119 kJ/mole with basis set 6-311+G(d,p) and 128 kJ/mole with basis set 6-31 G(d) and similarly in level of theory(B3LYP). Therefore, the protonated nitrogen of the HALS molecule had higher energy than the neutral nitrogen through the potential energy of the reaction....   [tags: Energy] 877 words
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Cell Analysis and Behavior - In both plants and animals, there are cells that are particularly responsible for the manufacturing and release of a precise protein or some other regulatory molecule. This can only be done through the presence of the appropriate signal required. G proteins are proteins that bind guanine nucleotides, either DTP or GDP. In order for their release a certain signal is mandatory. The mechanism for transmitting signals across the plasma membrane by G proteins is of ancient evolutionary origin that is highly conserved....   [tags: protein and regulatory molecule production] 710 words
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The Human Genome - The Human genome is what makes us what we are as humans. It is made of about 3 billion different parts called nucleotides. (University of California Santa Cruz). The nucleotides are the units that DNA is made up of. One nucleotide is made up of 3 parts called deoxyribose molecule, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. There are 4 kinds of bases in DNA there are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. DNA is found in the form of a double helix. (Miller and Levine) Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes....   [tags: nucleotides, DNA, deoxyriobose molecule]
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Robert D. Furchgott’s Contribution to Physiology - Robert F. Furchgott’s Prior Work in Pharmacology and Physiology Robert F. Furchgott was awarded a Bachelor of Science from the University of North Carolina in 1937 and a PhD in biochemistry from Northwestern University in 19401,2. During this PhD, he initially examined the physical and chemical changes egg albumin denaturation produced, but after attending a symposium in 1938 he decided to study the effects of unbuffered isotonic solution on mammalian erythrocytes6. He discovered a serum albumin that he coined “anti-sphering factor” that could not be separated from erythrocytes by traditional methods5....   [tags: Nitric Oxide, Cardiovascular Signaling Molecule]
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Aerobic Cellular Respiration - ... The ninth reaction is catalyzed by the protein enolase. Enolase catalyzes the removal of 2 “water molecule[s] from [the two molecules of] 2-phosphoglycerate to form a [separate] C=C [Carbon] double bond [per molecule] and produce[s] [2 molecules of] phosphoenolpryavute”. In the tenth, and final, reaction of Glycolysis, the protein pyruvate kinase catalyzes the reaction for both molecules of phosphoenolpryavute to give “[2] phosphate [groups] . . . to [another two molecules of] ADP [adenosine diphosphate] to make [two molecules of] [pyruvate] and [another two molecules] of ....   [tags: biological analysis]
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Hydrogen Bond - Polar molecules have a weak, partial negative and partial a positive charge. For example in water the negative charge is the oxygen atom and the positive the hydrogen atoms in the water. When water molecules are close together, the regions that are positively and negatively charged are attracted to the oppositely charged regions or nearby molecules. The dotted lines shown on the picture are called hydrogen bonds. Each water molecule is bonded to four other molecules. The hydrogen bonds that are created between the water molecules are some of the essential and unique properties of water....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Gas: The Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gas is one of three states of matter. The gas state is composed of a group of molecules that move freely, independent of each other. There are certain properties that define gas and separate the state of matter from the other two states: solid and liquid. Many different energies, forces, and amounts greatly affect the behavior of any type of gas. These differences consist of pressure, temperature, volume and even the number of molecules of a gaseous element. There is a mathematical relationship between all of these properties that affect all the properties when only one is changed....   [tags: Boyle and Charles Laws] 1245 words
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The Production and Functions of ATP - The Production and Functions of ATP The basic process in which ATP is used involves an organic molecule being phosphorylated by ATP, which produces an organic molecule with a phosphate group, and reduces ATP to ADP. This phosphorylated molecule becomes more reactive, thus lowering the activation energy needed for reactions, mainly used when enzymes are involved. This overview should demonstrate the importance of ATP- it allows living systems to convert stored chemical energy to kinetic or heat energy quite efficiently, resulting in the ability for homeostasis and skeletal movement among other things....   [tags: Papers] 1630 words
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We All Need Some Cellular Respiration - Every living thing needs cellular respiration to survive. Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. This process happens through three distinct operations which are glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Throughout these cycles, our bodies turn oxygen and glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Although this system seems simple enough, cellular respiration can not take place in just one step because all of the energy from glucose would be released at once, most of it being lost in the form of light and heat....   [tags: Cellular Respiration, ] 521 words
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The Krebs Cycle - The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions which occur in the mitochondria and results in the formation of ATP and other molecules which undergo farther reactions to form more ATP. Cellular respiration can be divided into four sequences. The first sequence is glycolysis, its breaks down one molecule glucose into two molecules pyruyate. Transition takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria and it’s referred to the beginning of aerobic respiration. The process takes place if there is enough amounts of oxygen in the mitochondria....   [tags: Chemistry]
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Water in the Biochemical Process - Water is a vital part for the function of organisms, as it is involved in the “energetics” of molecular interactions and conformational adaption of macromolecules in animal and plant cells, due to its structure, flexibility and several unique properties (Rand, 2004). In an organism’s cell, various types of water are present. They are known as bound, hydration, vicinal and bulk water. 95% of watery body fluid is composed of bulk water, since they function as “space filling medium”, which supports life and creates an aqueous medium for cellular reactions (Watterson, 1987) ....   [tags: Chemistry Science]
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An Account of ATP Production in Living Organisms - An Account of ATP Production in Living Organisms All cells must do work to stay alive and maintain their cellular environment. The energy needed for cell work comes from the bonds of ATP. Cells obtain their ATP by oxidizing organic molecules, a process called cellular respiration. Glucose is the primary fuel molecule for the cells of living organisms. Every living organism must do cell respiration. Most eukaryotic organisms are aerobic. Aerobic respiration is required in order to obtain enough energy (ATP) from the oxidations of fuel molecules to survive....   [tags: Papers] 585 words
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Finding out the affect of different concentrations of sucrose solution - Finding out the affect of different concentrations of sucrose solution on the mass of potato chips Introduction The aim of this investigation is to see when osmosis occurs in potato cells and whether anything happens to them when they are put in different concentrations of sucrose solution. I have to apply my background knowledge to devise an experiment which will tell me whether if different concentrations of water molecules in a solution will affect the mass of plant cell when they are put into it....   [tags: GCSE Biology A2 A-Level Coursework]
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How does Heat Affect Density - How does heat affect density. Many people do not realize why certain things or reactions happen. An example of this is why lava lamps work. The heat from the Alka Seltzer mixes the oil and food coloring in our lava lamps together that gives the lava lamp the effect has. For example, in Nelly’s and my case, the heat is the Alka Seltzer. The heat changes the density of the oil and the food coloring. This gives the oil and food coloring a chance to mix and make what appears to be “lava.” The heat makes the molecules in the mixture expand and move slower than when they are in colder temperatures (source 1)....   [tags: Lava Lamps, heat vs. density] 519 words
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Software for Molecular Docking - Auto Dock Auto Dock is an automated docking tool. It is designed to predict how small molecules, such as substrates, bind to a receptor of known 3D structures. Auto Dock actually consists of two main programs: one performs the docking of the ligand to a set of grids describing the target protein; and the other Auto Grid pre-calculates these grids. In addition to using them for docking, the atomic affinity grids can be visualized. A graphical user interface called Auto Dock Tools or ADT was utilized to generate grids, calculate dock score and evaluate the conformers....   [tags: Rasmol, pharmaceutical research] 1160 words
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Investigating Factors Affecting the Solubility of an Unknown Powder in Water - Investigating Factors Affecting the Solubility of an Unknown Powder in Water Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature on an unknown powder's solubility. Prediction: As the temperature increases so will the solubility of the powder. I think that the temperature and solubility will be directly proportional - so that at temperature doubles so will the solubility of the powder. Hypothesis: I think this because my scientific theory says that: Molecular solids, like sugar, and ionic solids, salts, both dissolve in water....   [tags: Papers] 1123 words
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Atoms for Kids - The atom, the basic building block of matter, consists of a core nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. Inside the atom nucleus contains a mixture of positively charged protons, and electrically neutral neutrons. All atomic electrons bind to the nucleus through electromagnetic force. A ground of electrons bound together will form individual molecules. An atom with an equal number of protons and electrons will hold neutral. An ion has positive or negative charge, either through a lack of electrons or an electron excess....   [tags: Subatomic Particles, Electron, Protons] 781 words
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Principles of Diffusion and Osmosis - Diffusion and Osmosis Across Dialysis Tubing By Jasper Lee, Leo Zhao, Oliva Skopas, Alistair Dobson, and Alex Bell 11/15/13 Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the principles of diffusion and osmosis, two processes that are essential for life, by using dialysis tubing (a semi-permeable membrane) to simulate the cell membrane and observe said processes. Introduction: Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. Imagine you had a glass of water and put a drop of food coloring in....   [tags: Dialysis Tubing, Case Study]
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Recent Advances in Artificial Photosynthesis - Introduction: Artificial photosynthesis could revolutionize our energy source and could solve the global warming crisis. Since the artificial photosynthesis is a renewable and clean energy with zero carbon dioxide emission and only harnessing the sun energy. This innovative works that mimic the process of plants by splitting the water molecules and produce products of Hydrogen and oxygen only by using the energy from the sunlight. With this the technology, it can produce products of hydrogen that can be converted into fuels that give many benefits to human for instance, transport, electricity generation and industries....   [tags: carbon dioxide, nanotechnology, science] 1307 words
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Rate of Osmosis Between Potato Cylinders and Sucrose Solution - Rate of Osmosis Between Potato Cylinders and Sucrose Solution Introduction I am doing an investigation, to find out on how varying one factor effects the rate of osmosis between potato cylinders and Sucrose solution. Osmosis is the diffusion of solvent (usually water) particles through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of high solvent concentration to a region of lower solvent concentration. Examples of Selectively permeable membranes are (a) the cell membrane, and (b) visking (dialysis) tubing....   [tags: Papers] 2115 words
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Natural Gas Storage: Feasibility of Hydrates - Introduction Natural Gas is a major energy source and approximately 22% of the global energy consumption is in the form of Natural Gas. Natural Gas is obtained from Oil Reservoirs, Shale Gas, Tight Gas, Coal Beds, and from Natural Gas Hydrates (NGH) i.e. Methane Hydrates present at sea beds. As of now, Methane Hydrate deposits are not being exploited commercially, but Japan conducted a six day offshore production test in the Pacific Ocean in March 2012. The test produced a total of 120,000 cubic meters, or 20,000 cu m/day, of gas from Methane Hydrate, and the Japanese government is encouraging research into hydrates for alternative energy source....   [tags: energy, oil reservoirs]
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