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Structural Knowledge Of A Biological Molecule

- Structural knowledge of a biological molecule is vital as it would give information on how it works, involving its physiological configuration and chemical interactions. Studies by Frederick Griffith (1928) and by Avery et al (1944) suggested that DNA is the hereditary material, rather than protein. However, the structure of a DNA molecule was still unknown to give rise to the confidence in this hypothesis, in term of how DNA works as the hereditary material. Therefore, scientists at that time were eager to solve the structure of DNA molecule, giving rise to a number of different proposed DNA structures, but none were published as they were lack of evidences until 1953 in which James Watsons...   [tags: DNA, Francis Crick, X-ray, X-ray crystallography]

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Pet Molecule Lab Assignment

- Every molecule known to man has a background story to discovering it. Between 1925-1845, the discovery of anesthetics was very popular. Enflurane was discovered by Ross C. Terrell at Ohio Medical Products. He is known to have created over 700 potential anesthetic compounds (“Basak”). All of his anesthetics were known to be synthesized around 1960 to 1980. Ohio Medical Products were able to successfully produce two anesthetics. The two anesthetics that were developed were isoflurane and enflurane....   [tags: enflurane, anesthesiology]

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DNA Molecule

- Haruan Channa striatus is in great demand in the Malaysian domestic fish market. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the genetic diversity and population genetics of Haruan C. striatus are needed for sound management, conservation, stock identification and successful fishing of the species. Haruan, the local name for the snakehead Channa striatus is an obligate freshwater fish of the family Channidae, which has important economic value as food fish, and has pharmacological properties as well as medicinal value (Mat Jais, 1991, 2007a, 2007b; Rahim et al., 2009; Jamaluddin et al., 2011)....   [tags: Biology, The Mitochondrial Cyt B]

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Taking a Closer Look at an Ozone Molecule

- INTRODUCTION An ozone molecule contains three of oxygen atoms (O3) which included the molecular oxygen (O2) that is important in our life in order to survive. Ozone is also the form of UV rays (sun) from the upper parts of atmosphere which is called stratosphere. Another name for stratosphere is protective ozone layer because it can help to protect human from the harmful effect of the ultra-violet radiation (UV ray) by absorbing it. But the lower part of atmosphere which name troposphere, can easily causes harmful or damage to a lung tissues of human and also the leaves tissue of plants because of the strong oxidizing agent....   [tags: oxygen, stratosphere, effects on plants]

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Dn A Stable Molecule And Its Replication

- DNA is a stable molecule and its replication is done with the highest fidelity. However, there are instances in which an error happens and may cause catastrophic effects to the organisms. There are errors or mutations that cause diseases or disorders. Among the vast list of diseases or disorders, I have chosen to look into the rare form of juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis known as ALS4. The purposes of this paper are to determine the gene mutation and how it causes the disease. Specific Mutation Researchers believe that SETX gene is related to the helicase enzyme that is responsible for unwinding the two strands of DNA in order for the proteins to fix the damaged area (Genetic Home Ref...   [tags: DNA, Mutation, Gene, DNA replication]

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The DNA Molecule

- The DNA Molecule In the autumn of 1951, James Watson (left) and Francis Crick (right) started work on unravelling the structure of DNA. It was known at the time that DNA was present in the nucleus of every living cell, and that it had something to do with heridity, but without a knowledge of its structure little more could be understood about how it actually worked. They approached the problem with the same methodology that had been pioneered by Linus Pauling, who after years of exhaustive study had earlier discovered that many proteins exhibited a helical structure....   [tags: Papers]

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The Spirit Molecule (DMT): An Endogenous Psychoactive

- The Spirit Molecule (DMT): An Endogenous Psychoactive "The feeling of doing DMT is as though one had been struck by noetic lightning. The ordinary world is almost instantaneously replaced, not only with a hallucination, but a hallucination whose alien character is its utter alienness. Nothing in this world can prepare one for the impressions that fill your mind when you enter the DMT sensorium."- McKenna. N,N-dimethyltryptamine(DMT) is a psychoactive chemical in the tryptamine family, which causes intense visuals and strong psychedelic mental affects when smoked, injected, snorted, or when swallowed orally (with an MAOI such as haramaline)....   [tags: Drugs DMT Drug Essays]

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Molecule may be key to nicotine addiction

- A single molecule may be partly to blame for nicotine’s addictive allure, a finding that researchers say could lead to potential therapies to help millions of smokers quit a life-threatening habit. More than 4 million people around the globe — 440,000 of them Americans — die from smoking-related causes each year. And, the nicotine-laced smoke damages more than just their lungs. The California researchers not only pinpointed a molecule responsible for nicotine addiction, they also created specialized mice to make it easier to search for other molecules impacted by nicotine addiction....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Recombinant Dna Technology : Sub Cloning Of Cdna Molecule Cih

- Recombinant DNA technology: Sub cloning of cDNA molecule CIH-1 into plasmid vector pUC19, transformation of XLI-Blue Ecoli & restriction mapping. The aim of this experiment was to isolate cDNA molecule CIH-1 (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum CIH1 gene) that is contained in vector pBK-CMV and transfer it into cloning vector pUC19. This was attempted by conducting a restriction digest of vectors pUC19 and pBk-CMV containing CIH-1, using restriction endonucleases Xba1 and EcoR1 and the characterization of recombinant plasmids....   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Restriction enzyme]

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The Activation Energy for the Molecule of HALS Reaction using GAUSSIAN 09 via the WebMO Interface

- 4.0 Discussion : 4.1 Hypothesis The hypothesis of the reaction, there was similarity by comparing the compound in case nitrogen was neutral and protonated. Table (1) illustrated that there was clearly different in the energy between two cases of that compound by 119 kJ/mole with basis set 6-311+G(d,p) and 128 kJ/mole with basis set 6-31 G(d) and similarly in level of theory(B3LYP). Therefore, the protonated nitrogen of the HALS molecule had higher energy than the neutral nitrogen through the potential energy of the reaction....   [tags: Energy]

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How Water Is Related To Chemistry

- How Water Is Related To Chemistry Water is a polar solvent, its molecule is covalently bonded that makes up for an unequal sharing of the electrons resulting in partially positive and partially negative water molecule. Organic molecules like Ethane and many other molecules are non-polar, that is they neither have a positive nor a negative end. As a result, he individual molecules within the water are greatly interconnected because of the presence of weak hydrogen bonds. Water acts as a universal solvent....   [tags: Molecule, Solvent, Hydrogen]

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Biology: Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’

- Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ Research and Rationale Enzymes Enzymes are made up of proteins that are available in every cell of a living plant and animal [9] .Enzymes are very important for biochemical reactions. They act as catalysts and speed up biochemical reactions by using ‘an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy’ [5].Enzymes either starts a chemical reaction or allows it to occur faster [9]. Enzymes do not experience enduring changes therefore; remain unchanged at the end of the reaction [9]....   [tags: triglycerides, energy, molecule]

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How Does Chemical Bonding Explain The Properties Of Chemical And Biological Polymers?

- Chemistry- Assignment 1: How does chemical bonding explain the properties of chemical and biological polymers. Introduction Until the early 1920 's, most chemists did not believe that the existence of molecules with a molecular weight that was greater than a few thousand to be possible as Reusch (2013) states. This view however was challenged by Hermann Staudinger in 1920. Staudinger was a chemist who studied natural compounds of which included rubber. His research in 1922 led to the idea that these compounds were actually macromolecules that were made up of over 10,000 atoms instead of being groups of small molecules....   [tags: Polymer, Molecule, Thermoplastic, Plastic]

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Ionization Energies Of The Atoms

- Ionization energies of the atoms are known to extreme high precision,29 and many MX species have now been studied by PFI-ZEKE methods, giving ionization energies to an accuracy of 0.001 eV or better. Thus, if the BDE of the cation is known, this relation allows the BDE of the neutral molecule to be determined, often to the same accuracy as that of the cationic bond energy. One of the most effective methods of determining the BDE of cations such as MX+ employs guided ion beam mass spectrometry, in combination with collision-induced dissociation (CID) or endothermic reaction....   [tags: Atom, Energy, Molecule, Ion]

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Evaluating Tissue Regenerative Potential Of Injectable Hydrogel

- Evaluating Tissue Regenerative Potential of Injectable Hydrogel Abstract: Myocardial infarctions, more commonly known as heart attacks, causes severe deterioration of arterial walls. The gradual thinning that results is extremely dangerous, and has proven to cause eventual death in a lot of cases if not treated. Here, HA-based and VEGF-based hydrogels were evaluated based on their ability to cause myocardial infarction regeneration. The two hydrogels showed very similar potentials for tissue regeneration when considering density of vessels produced, cell wall density regenerated, and speed of regeneration....   [tags: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Molecule]

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Structure of Nucleotides and DNA

- ... 1. The double helix is untwisted and the corresponding stands are unzipped. 2. The hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken freeing the floating nucleotides join with nitrogenous bases forming hydrogen bonds. This part of the reason for complementary base pairing. 3. Once the new nucleotide are bonded together by the enzyme DNA polymerase, which form complete strands opposite the original strands. 4. Finally, all the nucleotides are joined to form a complete polynucleotide chain using DNA polymerase....   [tags: deoxyribonucleic, molecule, bond]

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Cell Analysis and Behavior

- In both plants and animals, there are cells that are particularly responsible for the manufacturing and release of a precise protein or some other regulatory molecule. This can only be done through the presence of the appropriate signal required. G proteins are proteins that bind guanine nucleotides, either DTP or GDP. In order for their release a certain signal is mandatory. The mechanism for transmitting signals across the plasma membrane by G proteins is of ancient evolutionary origin that is highly conserved....   [tags: protein and regulatory molecule production]

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Atoms Are The Smallest Unit Of A Matter

- Atoms: Atoms are the smallest unit of a matter. It is the basic unit of life which is made of chemical matter. Molecules: Molecules are formed by two or more than two atoms which are held together by chemical bond. They are electrically neutral and are essential for forming an element. Orbits: Orbits are the paths to which an electrons revolves around in an atom. Orbitals: Orbitals are the energy state in an atom which classifies the position of an electron. There are 4 orbitals in an atom s, p, d, & f....   [tags: Atom, Molecule, Electron, Molecular orbital]

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A Justification of Luca Turin’s Vibrational Theory of Scent

- Science is used to explain everything. However, there are some topics which are disputed in the scientific community. One such topic is the proposed question, “How do we, humans, smell?” As for the answer to this question, there are two main theories which should be mentioned. The first is a theory based on the idea that the shape of a molecule determines it’s scent in the human nose (TED). The second such answer is the theory that smell is linked to the vibrational frequency of a molecule (TED)....   [tags: science, molecule, frequency, sense of smell]

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Antibody Diversity Mechanism

- A transposition- like mechanism can be used for other types of DNA rearrangement reactions. Such mechanism is responsible for assembly of gene fragments during development of the vertebrate immune system. Vertebrates have two specialized cells namely T- cells and B-cells that dedicated to recognize the invading organism. B cells produce antibodies that circulate in the bloodstream. T-cell produce cell surface- bound receptor protein called T-cell receptor. These classes of protein able to recognized great diverse invader molecule then starts a cascade event to destruct the invader....   [tags: antibody diversification, DNA, molecule]

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The Discovery And Development Of The Pharmacy Program At The University Of Pune

- I always wondered if the greatest minds were born with curiosity or if their inquisitive nature developed over time. As for me, I was born curious. Nature has always fascinated me and my intimate play with it increased as I grew. At an early age of seven my interest in biological processes itself developed, which eventually grew with time into field of drug discovery and development. Even now, as a graduate student, my curiosity drives my desire to contribute to the field of drug discovery and development....   [tags: Chemistry, Molecule, DNA, Computational chemistry]

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The Human Genome

- The Human genome is what makes us what we are as humans. It is made of about 3 billion different parts called nucleotides. (University of California Santa Cruz). The nucleotides are the units that DNA is made up of. One nucleotide is made up of 3 parts called deoxyribose molecule, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. There are 4 kinds of bases in DNA there are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. DNA is found in the form of a double helix. (Miller and Levine) Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes....   [tags: nucleotides, DNA, deoxyriobose molecule]

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Research on Mathematical Calculations of Bonds Betwen Amino Acid Residues and CO2 Molecules

- Cundari et al presented a powerful computational prediction system based on mathematical calculations of bonds between amino acid residues and CO2 molecule (Cundari et al. 2009). In their study, binding energies for CO2 and amino acid residues of Rubisco active site differ between different enzyme species that belongs to different organisms. It has been suggested that most of the hydrogen bonding in α-helices goes toward stabilizing the tightly coiled helix in loop 6 of Rubisco, whereas in contrast the edge of a β-sheet is open to hydrogen bonding, the binding energies are shown in table 1 (Cundari et al....   [tags: molecules, science,]

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Mole : Mole Relationship Lab

- Lab Title: Mole-to-Mole relationships and Empirical Formulas Purpose: The objective of lab four was to use the website Late Nite Labs to determine mole-to-mole relationships and empirical formulas in chemical reactions. Combining and/or heating various compounds, observing the reactions and then calculating the moles revealed the balanced chemical reactions. Materials: For the virtual experiment, a computer, Internet, calculator and access to Late Nite Labs were needed. If one were to do the mole-to-mole relationship lab with actual materials they would need copper (s), a Bunsen burner, a crucible, a scale, 0.2 M silver nitrate (AgNO3)(l), and beakers....   [tags: Chemistry, Molecule, Silver, Copper]

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Robert D. Furchgott’s Contribution to Physiology

- Robert F. Furchgott’s Prior Work in Pharmacology and Physiology Robert F. Furchgott was awarded a Bachelor of Science from the University of North Carolina in 1937 and a PhD in biochemistry from Northwestern University in 19401,2. During this PhD, he initially examined the physical and chemical changes egg albumin denaturation produced, but after attending a symposium in 1938 he decided to study the effects of unbuffered isotonic solution on mammalian erythrocytes6. He discovered a serum albumin that he coined “anti-sphering factor” that could not be separated from erythrocytes by traditional methods5....   [tags: Nitric Oxide, Cardiovascular Signaling Molecule]

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The Stages of Molecules in a Cell

- ... 2. Fructose will exhibit net diffusion into the cell. 3. Glucose will exhibit net diffusion out of the cell. 3. Size of the cell, concentration gradient of the cell, carrier protein of the membrane influence whether a molecule will be able to pass through a biological membrane. If the molecule is too large, it will require some kind of transport protein that is surrounded in the plasma member to allow it to pass through. Large molecules typically carry charges, so that may also affect the process....   [tags: osmosis, filtration, transport]

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A Study On Substance And Substance Molecules

- Question 1. a) Testosterone belongs to steroid family and it is a hydrophobic and insoluble molecule. In the body, over 95% of testosterone molecule are bound to proteins rather than staying in a free state. To fulfil its regulatory function, testosterone molecules need to be transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. However, this activity cannot be achieved themselves as they are prone to be repelled by hydrophilic head part of the nuclear membrane. Therefore, a carrier protein (androgen receptor) is needed for the cross-membrane transport and the delivery of testosterone....   [tags: Amino acid, Protein, Protein structure, Oxygen]

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A Experiment On Chemical Molecules

- Introduction Hydrates are compounds that form crystals that have water molecules in their structure. Barium chloride dihydrate, or BaCl2●2H2O is an example of this, with five water molecules for every one molecule of barium chloride. The water is called the water of hydration, and the dot between the barium chloride and the water molecules means that the two types of molecules are bonded together. The water of hydration is heated out of the hydrate when the temperature reaches above 100℃, since the hydrate bonds are weaker than the ionic bonds that are formed between the salt ions....   [tags: Ion, Mole, Water, Salt]

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The Behavior of PTCDA Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011)

- We have recently reported results of preliminary studies on the behavior of PTCDA molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) at very low coverage (approximately 0.05ML) [A. Tekiel, S. Godlewski, J. Budzioch, M. Szymonski, Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 495304]. There we have focused on the self-assembly process leading to formation of one-dimensional chains oriented along the crystallographic direction (Fig. 8a). These chains can include up to 20 molecules, which are uniformly oriented with their longer axis parallel to the substrate oxygen rows (orientation I – see Fig....   [tags: Chemistry]

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CuPc Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011) Surface

- Figure 6 STM images of CuPc molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) surface, panels a) and b) show sample before annealing, two distinct phases are observed, panels c) and d) illustrate sample after 2 hour annealing at 150°C, only phase II is visible, the amount of molecule dislocations, vacancies and defects is decreased after annealing, panels e) and f) show sample after two-hour annealing at 200°C, when completely new phase III is formed with up-right molecules, bias voltage +3.0V, tunnelling current 2pA....   [tags: Chemistry ]

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How Water Contributes To The Structure And Behavior Of Biological Molecules

- Introduction Water,H2O, is one of the most important chemical compounds on earth, and is commonly referred to as the basis of life on earth, because it is used in all type of chemical and biological processes, e.g. solvent, protein folding, stability of nucleic acids etc. Water is found in 3 states (solid, liquid, and gas), and is the most abundant naturally occurring substance on earth, covering 75% of the earth surface. Structure Water consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atoms, (held together by covalent bonds between the O-H atoms) and 2 lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atom, resulting in the formation of a bent shape with a bond angle of 104.5⁰....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Antigens Are Foreign Molecules, Composed Of Protein And Polysaccharides

- Antigen Antigens are foreign molecules, comprised of protein or polysaccharides. They are attached on the surface of pathogen. They provoke the immune system to produce antibodies against them when they invade the body. The microorganisms such as fungi - virus belonging to the family of antigen - can cause an illness or disease to their host. They come in different sizes and shapes and bind with their specific antibody. Antibody Antibodies or immunoglobulins (Ig) are small molecules of glycoprotein, derived from specialised white blood cells called B lymphocytes or plasma cells....   [tags: Blood, Immune system, Antibody, Coagulation]

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How Biological Molecules Interact With Organic / Inorganic Materials

- Broadly, my research experiences are based on multidisciplinary approaches at the interface with biology and materials science. My passion lies in understanding how materials emerges from biology, how biological molecules interact with organic/inorganic materials and how this acquired knowledge can be leveraged to develop improved Biomolecular materials to address key societal challenges. Over the last 9 years, my work ranged from DNA/RNA and enzyme studies to the bio-inspired silicon chemistry to virus-like particle self-assembly to the fabrication of microporous metal-organic frameworks biocomposite (Bio-MOFs)....   [tags: Molecular biology, DNA, Phage display]

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Large Molecules In the Structure And Functioning Of Cells

- Large Molecules In the Structure And Functioning Of Cells Large biological molecules are found in all cells, in plant and animals cells too. There are many different large biological molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids which are all extremely important to the functioning and structure of living cells. We would not be alive if any of these groups were missing. This signifies their importance. Carbohydrates contain three elements. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) Carbohydrates are found in three forms....   [tags: Papers]

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Gated Channels Are Used For Facilitate The Movement Of Molecules From One Side Of A Membrane

- 5) Gated channels are used to facilitate the movement of molecules from one side of a membrane to another and are necessary for facilitated diffusion. A gated channel can be open, closed, or in an intermediate state, and are controlled by change in membrane voltage, and differs from active by not requiring additional ATP for movement like active transport. Gated channels are exactly what they sound like, a channel that is controlled by a gate or regulator that will allow the movement of specific molecules in and out of cells....   [tags: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate]

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How Molecules Can Move Across A Semi Permeable Membrane

- The purpose of this lab is to determine which molecules can move across a semi-permeable membrane. The hypothesis for this experiment is as follows; As the smaller molecules of iodine travel through the “cell membrane” the artificial cell will gain mass. Dialysis tubing, a thin membrane that behaves in much the same way as a living cell’s actual plasma membrane, was used to test this experiment. After filling the dialysis tubing with the starch and glucose solutions, the artificial cell was then submerged in a water and iodine solution, and the results we’re recorded after 30 minutes....   [tags: Cell membrane, Cell, Semipermeable membrane]

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Example Science Lesson Plans and Reflection

- Lesson Plan 1 Subject: 6th grade Science Standard(s): MS-PS1-1: Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures. 5-PS1-1. Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen. Objective : Content Objectives: Students will be able to develop a ball and stick model to portray simple molecules and extended structures. Key Vocabulary: Molecule Simple Molecules Extended Structures “Di” “Tri” “Tetra” Materials: Aluminum Foil Marshmallows (different colors) /or Gumdrops Toothpicks 12 Science Processes: Classifying, Observing, inferring, communication, Anticipatory Set/Opening/Hook: Distribute pieces of aluminum...   [tags: objectives, guide, molecules]

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Mr. Euglena, Photosyntesis and Aerobic Respiration

- ... The coenzyme NADP then holds the product of twelve hydrogen atoms (12 H) as 6 NADPH2 to carry to the next process. The three oxygen molecules (3 O2) are then released into the air as a byproduct. The light reaction must happen a second time in order for the second phase of photosynthesis, the dark reaction, to occur. The same cycle of the light reaction then takes place. The result of two light reactions is a total of six oxygen molecules (6 O2) released into the air as byproducts and 12 NADPH2 (24 H) carried over to the dark reaction of photosynthesis....   [tags: adenosine triphosphate molecules (ATP)]

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Functions of Plasmodesmata on Plant Cells

- Introduction Cells communicate by transferring molecules from one to another. When a molecule is transferred it creates a reaction which then causes an effect. Within multicellular organisms there is cell-to-cell communication. Direct communication between cells can occur in two ways. One way is cell-cell recognition via interaction between surface proteins. When there is contact between cell surfaces, the proteins on the surface of the cell interact and create a signal. The other way is through cell junctions between adjacent cells....   [tags: molecules, cells, plasma membrane]

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Experiment: The Unique Properties of Water

- Group IV Project: Unique Properties of Water There are different properties (anomalies) of water which are unique. The uniqueness of water comes from its molecular structure. The polarity of water molecules is a consequence of hydrogen bonding. The meaning of polarity is that the molecule has both a positively and a negatively charged end, so water has a slight positive and slight negative charge on opposite ends. Water’s polarity is in charge of dissolving other molecules like sugars and ionic compounds....   [tags: Molecules, Cohesion, Density]

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The Development of Nanotechnology

- The word “Nanotechnology” is defined as the science of working with atoms and molecules to build devices that are extremely small. At first the concept nanotechnology and describing a mater in molecular or atomic scale spread very slowly. In 1867 James Clerk Maxwell proposed an experiment of small entity named Maxwell’s Demon capable of handling person molecules to show that the second law of thermodynamics has only statistical certainty1. After that Richard Adolf Zsigmondy used the nanometer scale for particle size characterization in 1914....   [tags: molecules, manufacturing, atoms]

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The Effects of Varying, Extreme Temperatures and Varying Organic Solvents on a Beet Root Cell Membrane

- ... This can be explained because it is the longest chained alcohol when compared to the others that were used in the experiment (Bio. Sciences Dept., 2013). It is theorized that the cell membrane is significantly reformed following the attachment of the 2-propanol to the membrane phospholipids. (Wanderlingh et al., 2010). This change in the membrane could be related to the high amount of leakage recorded by the spectrophotometer, as these changes could rupture the plasma membrane if a sufficient amount of the alcohol is present (Wanderlingh et al., 2010)....   [tags: molecules, hydrophilic, membrane]

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Investigation of Whether Temperature Affects Enzyme Activity

- ... 6. Repeat the stages but changes the temperature of the water used. Apparatus and Materials 1. Bunsen Burner 2. Tripod 3. Gaze 4. Heat Mat 5. Lab Coats 6. Safety Glasses 7. Heavy Duty Beakers 8. Thermometers 9. Black Card 10. 2 per boiling tube 11. 2 per small beakers 12. Test Tube Rack 13. Stopwatch Data Collection & Processing Recording Please see the table on the next page Calculation of the average (values of repeated numbers /4) Calculation of the rate (1/average) ×1000 Table Description On the lined piece of paper is the data that I recorder during the experiment....   [tags: molecules, experiment, reaction]

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Chemistry: Life at the Molecular Level

- In metabolism, complex molecules are degraded into simpler products including amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids. These simpler molecules can subsequently be broken down into the Acetyl CoA intermediate (Voet, D., Voet, J., Pratt, C. 2006. p. 397). Acetyl CoA then enters the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), and is oxidized into carbon dioxide, CO2. During the TCA cycle, NAD+ and FADH are reduced to produce high transfer potential electrons, NADH and FADH2. These NADH and FADH2 molecules are oxidized during oxidation phosphorylation and the electron transport chain and generate water, H2O and ATP (Voet et al....   [tags: calvin cycle, molecules, metabolism]

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Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the Field of Chemistry

- Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the field of Chemistry Thomas Robert Cech is a well-known chemist who used his knowledge of science to discover several theories in order to enhance the study of molecules and atoms in different matters. In summary, Thomas Cech received his PhD degree in Chemistry from the University of California. He was also a lecturer at the University of Colorado where he lectured on chemistry and biochemistry. Cech’s research and hard labour has brought many awards to him and one of the major awards he received is the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1989....   [tags: RNA molecules, dna]

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Radiation Pressure Effect on Polymerization Reactions

- A laser trap, or an optical trap, is created by tightly focusing a laser beam with an objective lens of high numerical aperture (NA).1 The trap is formed at the focal point of the objective, which is able to hold a small particle at its center. In other words, a dielectric particle near the focus will experience a force due to the transfer of momentum from the scattering of incident photons. The resulting optical force has two components: a scattering force in the direction of light propagation and a gradient force in the direction of the spatial light gradient....   [tags: Laser Beams, Chemistry, Molecules]

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The Use of Nanotechnology in Medicine

- Nanotechnology and Medicine What is nanotechnology. Not very commonly discussed, but very commonly used. We use nanotechnology on a day to day basis, smart phones, computers, pads, and now emerging very reputedly in medicine. In the word “Nano” means a billionth (10-9). Nanotechnology is defined as the study of structures between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers in size. How small is a Nano…..really. A Nano concerns objects that are extremely small, bigger than atoms, but smaller than you can see than you can see with a light microscope....   [tags: delivery, molecules, cells]

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Questions and Anwers on DNA and Molecules

- Question1 What are Eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are known to be the organisms which have double membrane or membrane bounded, such as the nucleus, mitochondria than in plant cell this will include chloroplast, examples of this eukaryotes are, animals, plants, fungi and protozoans. Genome is defined as entire genetic material of an individual. All eukaryotes have mitochondrial genome of which it is very small in size and circular in shape, meaning that depend on the organism the genome will vary in size since others are small, so the specific size normally range from 10Mb in length to 100 000 Mb in higher eukaryotes....   [tags: eukaryotes, genomes]

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Structure of the Cell and Bio Molecules

- The cell, what is a cell means and what is the structure of it. Everyone knows that it’s the smallest particle in any living organism and it’s responsible for anything that happens in our bodies. As there’s no one know what it functions, what is the structure of the cell and what it is consisted from and what does every part in it functions. So, first of all the theory of a cell is that all organisms are formed from cells which is the structural unit of life and they are raised by division of pre-existing cells, as they can be cultured to produce more cells....   [tags: genetic blueprints]

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The Heat Of Gaseous Molecules

- Discussion At a constant temperature, a pure liquid has a vapor pressure that describes the pressure of escaped gaseous molecules that exist in equilibrium at the liquid’s surface. Adding energy to a pure liquid gives more molecules the kinetic energy to break the intermolecular forces maintaining the liquid and raises the overall temperature of the liquid. Eventually, adding energy boosts the liquid’s vapor pressure until it equals the surrounding atmospheric pressure. When this occurs, the pure liquid boils at a temperature called the boiling point....   [tags: Distillation, Temperature, Gas, Thermodynamics]

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Infrared Spectra Of Unknown Molecules

- Abstract: The goal of this lab was to measure the infrared spectra of unknown molecules and use the measurements to determine which sample was obtained. An IR spectra of a solid sample and an IR spectra of a liquid sample were generated and the functional groups were identified from each spectra respectively. The peak frequency above the fingerprint region (>1500 cm-1) were identified for each sample’s spectra and the appropriate functional groups were assigned to each peak. The liquid sample was determined to be 2-propanol and the solid sample was determined to be benzoic acid....   [tags: Infrared spectroscopy, Spectroscopy, Infrared]

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Biology: The Chiral Molecules

- ... Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the types of carbon, which is in cylindrical nanostructures form. Nanotubes are one of the members of the fullerene structural family. Their name is obtained from the long hollow structure with the walls formed by one atom thick sheets of carbon, called graphene. The sheets are then rolled at specific and discrete angles, and the combination of the rolling angle and radius decides the nanotube properties. There are several structures of CNT, which is differing in length, thickness, types of helicity and number of layers....   [tags: biomolecules, carbon, nanotubes]

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Chemistry: What is A Complexometric Titration

- Introduction: According to (Khan): A complexometric titration as defined by IUPAC as a volumetric titration where a soluble complex can be formed by titrating a metal ion with a ligand in an aqueous solution and a titrant is one of the reacts used in the titration. [4] M(H2O)n + L = M(H2O)(n-1)L + H20 [4] (Khan): further states, here L are the Ligand and which is formed via the complete replacement of water molecules by other ligands can occur till the formation of the MLn complex. “n” is the coordination number of the metal ion and represents the maximum number of monodentate ligands which can be bound to it [8] Figure 1: The h...   [tags: metal ion, donor atom, molecules]

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What´s Food Chemistry?

- Food chemistry is the study used to analyze the chemical and biological components in foods for consumer consumption.1 The food substance(s) studied fall into varying categories such as meat, vegetables, liquids, and genetically modified foods(GMO’s). The fabrication of this study relies on the biological components incorporated into the food including vitamins, water content, minerals, enzymes, flavors, colors, fats, and so on. An important methodology to analyzing these biological components is the analytical spectroscopy.2 Spectroscopy is the study of molecular energy and radiation with respect to matter....   [tags: spectroscopy, unwanted molecules]

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Protein Recognition by Synthetic Receptors

- Protein Recognition by Synthetic Receptors Proteins are macromolecules made up of one or more chains of amino acids (polypeptide) and each amino acid in a polypeptide chain links by peptide bond. Major biochemical functions of protein include catalysis (enzymes), molecular switches and structural components of cells and organisms. Each organism has a unique amino acid sequence in their protein that is encoded in their genes. Proteins have four levels of structure. Primary structure Twenty, different types of amino acids are present and these amino acids form more than 10000 proteins in human body....   [tags: amino acids, polypeptide chain, molecules]

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Lipids: Essential to Our Body

- Lipids can be described as hydrophobic molecules that are soluble in organic solvents (Berg, Stryer, & Tymoczko, 2010). Lipids are important because they are used to store energy, act as structural components for cell membranes, and play a significant role in signal-transduction pathways. There are several classes of lipids – fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, glycolipids, and steroids. Many people have heard about fatty acids, such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, or “essential fats”....   [tags: hydrophobic molecules soluble in organic solvents]

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How Organic Molecules React And Synthesize

- Introduction: This lab puts together ideas presented in class combined with knowledge from prior courses to help us learn and better understand how organic molecules react and synthesize, with ways to identify them using their physical properties. This lab reinforced a lot of the learning that we have grown upon in the last few lectures by giving us a chance to do identify physical characteristics of molecules that can’t be demonstrated in lecture, an example being the smell of esters. To start the lab we synthesized an aqueous acetaminophen out of 4-aminophenol and acetic anhydride in a test tube....   [tags: Acetic acid, Ester, Carboxylic acid, Alcohol]

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Properties Of Thermal Insulation Systems : The Random Movement Of Molecules

- PROPERTIES OF THERMAL INSULATION SYSTEMS: Thermal Energy: the random movement of molecules in a system with respect to its temperature is what is refer to as thermal energy or internal kinetic energy. Kinetic energy exist in three basic forms: translational, vibrational and rotational. Translational is the energy which is as a result of the movement of molecules to each other, vibrational as a result of the vibrating motion of the molecules and rotational due to the rotating motion of molecules....   [tags: Heat, Temperature, Heat transfer, Thermodynamics]

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Active and Passive Transport of Molecules Through Plasma Membrane

- ... i The plasma membrane has a phospholipid bilayer which separates the inside (the cytoplasm) and the outside (extracellular fluid and lipid-soluble solutes) of the cell. The fact that the plasma membrane monitors the passage of molecules based on size and solubility constitutes it as semi-permeable. Diffusion can be categorized as either simple diffusion or facilitated diffusion. A similarity between simple and facilitated diffusion is that they are both passive processes and travel from areas of higher concentration to region of lower concentration....   [tags: cells, diffusion, filtration]

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Nanotechnology Is The Science Of Regulating Matter On The Scale Of Molecules

- 589,430 people from the United States are estimated to die from cancer in 2015 (ACI, 2015). Seeing a loved one die from cancer heartbreaking. Seeing a loved one suffer from the side effects of cancer treatment is just as hard. The battle to treat cancer has been stressful and harsh to patients. The most popular way to treat cancer today is through chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a way of treating cancer using chemical substances, specifically anti-cancer drugs. A new and emerging way to treat cancer is nanotechnology....   [tags: Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Nanotechnology]

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More Antibody Molecules than Genes in Our Genome

- There are more than 1012 different antibody molecules in the human body. How can our body make more antibodies than there are genes in the genome. Explain the genetic rearrangement mechanism to produce the antibody diversity. Immunoglobulins (antibodies) are a group of structurally related proteins produced by plasma cells, secreted into the serum or tissue fluids, and characterized by certain physicochemical and biological properties. Immunoglobulins of mammals can be divided into five major classes, usually called IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD and IgE, which differ physicochemically and immunologically (Zapata & Cooper, 1990)....   [tags: diversity, immunization, mutation]

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Detection Of Biological Molecules

- Detection of Biological Molecules Introduction: Without carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen and phosphorus, life wouldn't exist. These are the most abundant elements in living organisms. These elements are held together by covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds. Covalent bonds are especially strong, thus, are present in monomers, the building blocks of life. These monomers combine to make polymers, which is a long chain of monomers strung together. Biological molecules can be distinguished by their functional groups....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Organic Molecules Challenge

- Organic Molecules Challenge Silicon's Reign as King of Semiconductors There is a revolution fomenting in the semiconductor industry. It may take 30 years or more to reach perfection, but when it does the advance may be so great that today's computers will be little more than calculators compared to what will come after. The revolution is called molecular electronics, and its goal is to depose silicon as king of the computer chip and put carbon in its place. The perpetrators are a few clever chemists trying to use pigment, proteins, polymers, and other organic molecules to carry out the same task that microscopic patterns of silicon and metal do now....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Rna Based Approaches For Hiv Rna And Rna Molecules With Catalytic Activity

- 1.4.2 RNA-based approaches Ribozymes Ribozymes are RNA molecules with catalytic activity and can be engineered to cleave HIV RNA molecules at specific sites.231 Ribozymes targeting the U5 region, pol ORF, tat ORF or a site in the overlapping tat/rev ORF were tested in phase I clinical trials, but no antiviral effects were observed following the transplantation of CD4+ T cell or HSPCs transduced with MLV vectors.232 A hammerhead ribozyme targeting a site in the overlapping vpr and tat ORFs of HIV RNA advanced to phase II trials.233,234 Autologous HSPCs were transduced with an MLV vector that expressed the ribozyme under control of the MLV LTR....   [tags: RNA, DNA, RNA interference, Gene]

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The Effect Of Carbon Dioxide On The Production Of Glucose Molecules During Photosynthesis

- Carbon dioxide is a reactant in the production of glucose molecules during photosynthesis, and is therefore a limiting factor of the rate of photosynthesis. It is taken in through the stomata in the leaves of plants and reacts with light and water to form oxygen gas and organic molecules. Respiration uses the organic molecules and oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of ATP. This energy is then used by the plant for growth and metabolic functions, making this process essential to life (Benniston and Harriman 2008)....   [tags: Carbon dioxide, Photosynthesis, Oxygen, Plant]

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Comparison of Chemical Composition of Various Food Stuff

- Title : Comparison of Chemical Composition of Various Food Stuff Introduction Carbohydrate is a macromolecule that consists of atoms of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen. The carbohydrates or saccharides exists in 4 groups, monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Starch is among one of the polysaccharides and it consists of a large number of units of glucose molecules joined together by glycosidic bonds. Starch consists of two types of molecules , the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin....   [tags: of cells and molecules]

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Deterioration of RNA Study

- The current status of the problem The chemical modification in triplex forming oligonucleotides affects the stability of RNA triplex. The incorporation of 2-omethayl-modify residues in a triplex forming oligonucleotides destabilizes and stabilizes triplex formation with RNA and DNA duplex regions (Patterson, Plaxco & Ricci, 2010). The deterioration of RNA triplex formation may be making easy through modulation of van der Waals contact, base stacking backbone pre-organization, geometric compatibility and dehydration energy (Patterson, Plaxco & Ricci, 2010)....   [tags: DNA, Molecules]

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The Transfer of Energy During Heating of Large Molecules

- The Transfer of Energy During Heating of Large Molecules AIM: The aim of this investigation is, to find out which molecules transfer the most energy. PREDICTION: I predict that as the numbers of particles are increased, the energy transferred will also be increased. We will use methanol, ethanol, propanol, butonol and octanol. The word and symbol equations for these reactions are: Methanol: Methanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water ======================================== C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 +4H20 Ethanol: Ethanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H20 Propanol: Propanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 2C3H7OH + 9O2...   [tags: Papers]

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Viruses: Complex Molecules Or Simple Life Forms?

- Viruses: Complex Molecules or Simple Life Forms. Viruses have been defined as "entities whose genomes are elements of nucleic acid that replicate inside living cells using the cellular synthetic machinery, and cause the synthesis of specialised elements that can transfer the genome to other cells." They are stationaryand are unable to grow. Because of all these factors, it is debatable whether viruses are the most complex of molecules or the simplest life forms. While the definition of living organisms must be adapted, the majority of evidence leads to the classification of viruses as living organisms....   [tags: essays research papers]

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- Ribozymes are catalytic molecules that cleave the ribonucleic acid (RNA) at specific sequences (Gesteland et al. 2006). RNA is the nucleic acid that is made in the process of transcription; when the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) anneals, it transcribes itself into a linear stranded molecule called RNA. In order for RNA to synthesise proteins, it requires catalytic enzymes to perform certain chemical reactions. In the past, it was thought that all chemical reactions are catalysed by protein enzymes; however, in the eighties this hypothesis was disproved as Thomas Cech and Sydney Altman discovered that RNA is able to carry out self-catalysing activities which were named as ribozymes because they...   [tags: Biology, Catalytic Molecules, RNA]

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Cells Are Exposed to Reactive Oxygen Species in Oxidative Stress

- 2.1 OXIDATIVE STRESS The term oxidative stress is often used to imply a condition in which cells are exposed to excessive levels of either molecular oxygen or chemical derivatives of oxygen called reactive oxygen species; (Kojda et al., 1999). This occurs when molecules of oxygen are reduced to various subunits such as water, the production of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen radicals (Geller, D.A., et al. 1993). On the other hand ROS has different effects on individual blood vessels and also play a very important role on the physiological and pathological aspects of the vessels....   [tags: molecules, biological, disease]

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What are Proteins and What do They Do?

- ... “In many proteins, the polypeptide chain is bent at specific sites and the folded back and forth, resulting in the tertiary structure of the protein” (Sadava, 2011, p. 46). Lastly proteins also have a quaternary structure. “The quaternary structure of a protein consists of subunits” (Sadava, 2011, p. 47). “The protein’s quaternary structure results from the ways in which these subunits bind together and interact” (Sadava, 2011, p. 47). In this lab students will analyze unknown proteins, along with their size, and subunits....   [tags: complex molecules, dna, genetics]

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Plants Used for Meditation and Medication

- Human beings have used plants, plant constituents, herbal preparations and finished herbal merchandise for hundreds of years, among others as foods as meditative agents as stimulants, narcotics, and hallucinogens for wear and shelter as aromatics, cosmetics, dyes and to arrange toxic arrow- and spearheads for warfare and looking. Growing insights into the chemical structures and mechanisms of action of the pharmacologically active principles of those substances have resulted within the development of variety of life-saving medicine against human diseases....   [tags: herbal, ailments, molecules]

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The Use of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

- Introduction Proteins accumulate in the nucleus to signal the specific entry of molecules through nuclear pore complex (NPC) [1-3]. This mechanism was observed first in nucleoplasmin, an acidic protein that binds histones H2A and H2B during nucleosome assembly[4-8]. In vertebrates Nuclear pore complex weighs 125Mda in mass and contains 50-100 polypeptides. Thus, for macromolecules to cross the NPC, a signal mediated transport mechanism is required. Although several pathways exist for nuclear transport, classical nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that contain one or more clusters of basic amino acids are well known and characterized [9]....   [tags: Gene, Molecules, Chemistry]

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The Process of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

- Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance of proteins (protein NMR) (Wikipedia, 2014) is an important field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is employed to get information about the structure of proteins and their Flexibility. The field was originated and pioneered by Richard R. Ernst and Kurt Wüthrich, and others. NMR measurements are composed of phases. In each phase a separate set of highly specialized techniques are used. First, the sample is prepared accurately. Second is measuring tools....   [tags: protein, molecules, signals]

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The Evolution of the Microscope

- ... Now by 18th century the microscope were better and easier to use they also became more popular to use with in the scientists. Combining two typed of glass made the chromatic effect, which was also one of the important discoveries. During 1830 Joseph Jackson Lister discovered that putting some weak lenses together at a specific distant the result would be getting no blurry image. 1878 Ernst Abbe he formulates a mathematical theory in which led resolution to the wavelength of light. In 1903 Richard Zsigmondy was able to study objects under the wavelength of light with the help of the ultra microscope....   [tags: lenses, atoms, molecules]

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Stephanie Kwolek's Discovery of Kevlar

- Stephanie Kwolek was the first to discover and synthesize Kevlar in 1964 at the laboratories in Wilmington. In 1950, Kwolek specialized in creating a solid gas based fibers. She was successful in creating the first monomer that is used to manufacture polybenzamide. From this unstable process that can only stay for a while and this result in acceptable solvent that all allow too be in low temperature polymer. When it is placed in the required state conditions, the polymer will become liquid substance, which is the opposite result of the previous discoveries and experiment....   [tags: molecules, polymer, hardness]

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QSAR Pharmacophore Model Hypo1

- ... Further we passed these filtered molecules for the docking analysis. 3.6 Molecular Docking study For further refining the retrieved hits and evaluating the binding mode between compounds and proteins, all compounds and compound_1 were docked into the binding site of PDK1[26] (PDB entry:1UU7)[27] by using LigandFit [28] docking method implemented in Discovery Studio 2.5 program package. Before docking the all the molecules, compound_1(most active compound of training set ) was docked in to the active site of PDK1.Compound_1 has shown the docking energy of - 64.5 kcal/mol and RMSD value of 0.841.It showed the hydrogen bond interactions with important residues of like Lys111, Asp 230, Al...   [tags: compounds, molecules, method, docking]

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Catalysts Used in Cracking

- A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. It does not change the equilibrium but instead provides a different pathway. Catalysts usually lower the activation energy. For the cracking process, most of the people in this production utilize alumina (aluminum oxide, AL203) as a catalyst. It functions by decreasing the energy essential to reduce C-C bonds when the larger hydrocarbon molecules are absorbed on the outside of the alumina particles. Catalytic cracking breaks down complex hydrocarbons into simpler molecules in order to boost the quality and quantity of lighter, more desirable products and lessen the amount of residuals....   [tags: Thermal, Molecules, Process]

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Organic Molecules: Ascorbic Acid

- Ancient Times In ancient times, close to 3300 BCE to 100 CE, when many things were being established, for example municipalities and continual cultivation. In Sumaria (in modern Iraq), it was discovered that food, not only allow human beings to stay alive but it has an immense impact on their health. This was an introductory concept that influenced the discovery of Vitamins in general. But this notion was probably already known by even earlier medicine experts, at that time called shaman(Jacks, 2007)....   [tags: continual cultivation, Sumalia, health]

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