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Descartes View on the Senses

- Descartes first meditation included a few arguments that Descartes studied and analyze. The one I choose to analyze was his argument of sense deception. The actually argument is the following: (1) My senses sometimes deceive me. (2) If my senses sometimes deceive me, then they might always deceive me. (3) If my senses might always deceive me, then I cannot be certain about any beliefs acquired through my senses. (4) If I cannot be certain about any beliefs acquired through my senses, then I must suspend judgment on those beliefs....   [tags: Descartes]

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Descartes ' Natural Light By Rene Descartes

- ... 3, AT 7:36) Ideas gained through clear and distinct perception are impossible to refute, being that doing so would result in a contradiction. Descartes having ascertained that he is a thinking thing and therefore exists through clear and distinct knowledge is unable to be convinced otherwise. The knowledge he gains from the cogito is impossible to ignore. In contrast to clear and distinct perception, external perception pales in comparison. External perception does not lend the meditator any solidified knowledge....   [tags: Mind, Epistemology, Perception, René Descartes]

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Descartes ' The Coffee House By Rene Descartes

- ... Due to the mutual exclusivity of these, it can only be concluded that they are distinct in nature [e]. Further, when I consider this matter closely, I can think of myself as not being a body, however I cannot imagine myself without the property of thought. I don’t lose a part of Rene Descartes when I clip my toenails, but I cannot continue to be Rene Descartes without the property of cognition - this shows that my nature is inherently that of a thinking thing, and only that of a thinking thing....   [tags: Mind, Thought, René Descartes, Soul]

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Descartes and the Existence of Physical Objects

- Descartes and the Existence of Physical Objects In his sixth meditation Descartes must return to the doubts he raised in his first one. Here he deals mainly with the mind-body problem and tries to prove whether material things exist with certainty. In this meditation he develops his dualist argument; by making a distinction between mind and body; although he also reveals that the are significantly related. He considers existence of the external world and whether its perception holds any knowledge of this world....   [tags: Descartes]

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Review of Descartes: An Intellectual Biography and Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain

- Review of Descartes: An Intellectual Biography and Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain Descartes' error, Antonio Damasio tells us, was his belief in "the abyssal separation between body and mind . . . " (250). As Damasio notes, there are certainly many specific "errors" in Descartes' writings--that heat causes the circulation of the blood, for example, or that movement is translated instantaneously through the plenum from one object to another--but all these notions have been "corrected" by subsequent theory in ways that we can imagine Descartes himself might easily accept....   [tags: Descartes ]

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The Dream Argument by Rene Descartes

- One of Rene Descartes’s most famous arguments, from his not only from his first meditation but all of the meditations, is his Dream Argument. Descartes believes that there is no way to be able to distinguish being in awake from being in a state of dreaming. In fact you could actually be in a dream right now. Rene Descartes’s theory that one is unable distinguish being awake from dreaming, as interesting as it is, can be at times a little farfetched, along with a few contradictions to himself, Descartes’s dream argument does not entitle himself to any sort of claim....   [tags: Descartes Theory, Dreaming, Awake]

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René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes

- During the sixteen hundreds, the French philosopher René Descartes laid the foundations for the beginnings of Cartesian Dualism. In contrast, the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes argued against dualism in favor of materialism. Recently, Cartesian Dualism, and dualism in general has fallen out of favor as materialism arose as a more plausible and explanatory theory regarding the interrelationships between body and mind. The translation Descartes’ writing in the Meditations is far more cryptic than Hobbes’ writing in the Leviathan....   [tags: Descartes vs Hobbes]

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The Meditations by Rene Descartes

- In Descartes’ Meditations, his goal to prove the existence of things could only be accomplished if he was logical, clear, and correct in his thoughts and writings. The most important issues he noted were the threat of being deceived and the potential of being incorrect in his judgments, both of which would lead him into error. Error exists as a problem that individuals encounter on a regular basis, and it also exists as a focal point in Descartes’ Meditations. Descartes defines error as “a privation or lack of some knowledge which somehow should be in me.” As a “thinking thing”, which he defines as “a thing that doubts, understands, affirms, denies, is willing, is unwilling, and also imagine...   [tags: Rene Descartes, 2015]

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Blade Runner and Descartes’ Theory

- In the film “Blade Runner”, replicants are made perfectly like human beings through a well-done ‘skin jobs’ and genetic engineered. They can demonstrate the abilities to perform and work like human: they can talk and they can also have feelings and emotions. These replicants are stronger, faster, and smarter than humans; however, they are only genetically programmed for a designated life span of four years. Replicants are created to use as a slave labor, which is used in “off-world colonization”....   [tags: Blade Runner, movies, Descartes,]

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Descartes´ Mental and Physical Substances

- When Descartes published his ideas in his Meditations on First Philosophy, his ideas were not new, but nonetheless groundbreaking. He proposed there were two separate types of matter or stuff that can exist independent of each other. These are physical substances and mental substances. The physical can only occupy space in the real world, and cannot do any of the things we attribute to mental faculties, such as thinking and reasoning. Though the mental cannot be present in the material world, it can surely have an effect on what the physical body does....   [tags: Descartes, epiphenomenalism, functionalism ]

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Descartes And The Mind And Body

- ... Descartes said that once everything is doubted, there is no certainty on what remains, except for your own mind. He posed the cogito, I think therefore I am. Because he is able to think and doubt his own existence, that is how he truly knows that he is existing; he can’t be mistaken by his own consciousness if he is able to doubt that he is doubting. Thus, he may exist without sense and body perception, but cannot if he is not thinking with his mind. To build on this point, Descartes said that “[he is] therefore a true thing, and one that truly exists […] one that thinks” (Descartes, 1641, p14), concluding that he is a thinking thing....   [tags: Mind, Philosophy of mind, René Descartes]

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The Dream Argument By Rene Descartes

- ... With the argument, Descartes says you cannot trust what your sense are experiencing because there have been times where you thought you were awake but in reality dreaming, eventually coming to a realization that what was occurring was strictly in the mind. Descartes believes that, we cannot differentiate, the difference between a dreaming and waking experience. Since this happens sometime, you must admit that this could possibly be the state of all time. You can 't know that what you think is happening is really happening....   [tags: Mind, Epistemology, Metaphysics, René Descartes]

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Meditations on First Philosophy, by Rene Descartes

- In Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy, he talks about the distinction between God and existence. This paper is going to argue that in Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy, Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, both are contrasting how we know that God really exists and how we know what we perceive in this world actually exists as well. This essay will start by talking all about Rene Descartes and his ideas around the existence of God and life itself with everything living in it. Rene Descartes is putting forward an argument that everything we perceive in life is true when he says; “And thus I now seem able to posit as a general rule that everything I very clearly and distinctly p...   [tags: literary analysis, rene descartes]

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Descartes 's Meditations On First Philosophy

- ... Descartes goes on to elaborate upon what he means by this, he explains that all his current knowledge comes from his understanding of the physical world he perceives. I say perceives as Descartes finds that he can doubt his senses, and therefore his knowledge of the physical world. He cannot be sure what is real and what could be illusion in his understanding of the world, to dispel the illusion he conceives to find that which he cannot bring into doubt. He finds that all things can be called into doubt, all things but one, that which is his own existence; this is where cogito ergo sum comes from, the very existence of his thoughts means that there must be a being thinking those thoughts...   [tags: Perception, Mind, Epistemology, René Descartes]

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Descartes' Wax Argument

- The purpose of the wax argument is designed to provide a clear and distinct knowledge of “I”, which is the mind, while corporeal things, “whose images are framed by thought, and which the senses themselves imagine are much more distinctly known than this mysterious ‘I’ which does not fall within the imagination” (66). Through the wax argument, Descartes’ demonstrates that corporeal things are perceived neither through our senses nor imagination, but through our intellect alone. In this argument, you will see that there is cause to doubt Descartes’ analysis of the wax and his method of philosophical reasoning....   [tags: Descartes Meditations]

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Analyzing Individuation and Identity In Descartes´ Philosophical View of the Mind-Body Dualism

- Every since Plato introduced the idea of dualism thousands of years ago meta-physicians have been faced with the mind-body problem. Even so Plato idea of dualism did not become a major issue of debate in the philosophical world until the seventeenth century when French philosopher Rene Descartes publicized his ideas concerning the mental and physical world. During this paper, I will analyze the issue of individuation and identity in Descartes’ philosophical view of the mind-body dualism. I will first start by explaining the structure of Cartesian dualism....   [tags: Rene Descartes, Plato, Cartesian dualism]

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The Existence of God: According to Descartes

- Once Descartes has "proved" his existence by way of the Cogito argument, and has determined what it is that belongs to his essence of being a thinking thing, he must move to examining questions about the world around him. However, before doing this, he thinks it better to examine the question of the existence of God. If he can prove that he was created by a perfectly benevolent creator, then his innate ideas must carry some semblance of truth, as God is not a deceiver and has placed these ideas in Descartes....   [tags: Religion God Descartes Philosophy Essays]

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How did Descartes Explain the Relationship between Mind and Body?

- Across the years, many scientists and philosophers believed that a human being is made up by mind and body (Radner, 1971). Some of them believed that the mind-soul is something different from the body and each of them works by themselves without any interaction between them (Radner, 1971). The other point of view said that body and mind works together as a unity and mutually influences each other and the result is the human being. This view had been held by great figures like the Greek philosopher Aristotle and Aquinas (Radner, 1971)....   [tags: rene descartes, mind and body, aristotle]

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A Humean Critique of Descartes

- A Humean Critique of Descartes Montreal has big potholes. Lots of them. If one is to truly understand the philosophy of Hume and Descartes, one must understand what they would do with crummy roads as civil engineers in Montreal. Hume would probably repave the roads based on the success of past designs and the results of empirical data. Descartes, on the other hand, would probably leave nothing unscathed after attacking the problem with reason, scrapping the existing roadmap and re-building roads with new foundations and new directions....   [tags: Descartes Critique Philosophy Philosopher Essays]

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The Free Will in Meditations on First Philosophy by Descartes

- The Free Will in Meditations on First Philosophy by Descartes I In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes takes the reader through a methodological exercise in philosophical enquiry. After stripping the intellect of all doubtful and false beliefs, he re-examines the nature and structure of being in an attempt to secure a universally valid epistemology free from skepticism. Hoping for the successful reconciliation of science and theology, Descartes works to reconstruct a new foundation of absolute and certain truth to act as a catalyst for future scientific research by “showing that a mathematical [rational-objective] physics of the world is attainable by creatures with our intellectua...   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Descartes Essays]

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Analysis of Descartes’ Mind/Body Distinction

- In his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes states “I have a clear and distinct idea of myself, in as far as I am only a thinking and unextended thing, and as, on the other hand, I possess a distinct idea of body, in as far as it is only an extended and unthinking thing”. [1] The concept that the mind is an intangible, thinking entity while the body is a tangible entity not capable of thought is known as Cartesian Dualism. The purpose of this essay is to examine how Descartes tries to prove that the mind or soul is, in its essential nature, entirely distinct from the body and whether or not he is successful....   [tags: Descartes Meditation One 2014]

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Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy

- Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes’ third meditation from his book Meditations on First Philosophy, examines Descartes’ arguments for the existence of God. The purpose of this essay will be to explore Descartes’ reasoning and proofs of God’s existence. In the third meditation, Descartes states two arguments attempting to prove God’s existence, the Trademark argument and the traditional Cosmological argument. Although his arguments are strong and relatively truthful, they do no prove the existence of God....   [tags: Existence God Religion Descartes Essays]

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Beliefs Beyond Doubt, What All Other Respond To: Rene Descartes' "Meditations on First Philosophy"

- Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy is considered to be one of the most important works in modern philosophy. John Locke, Immanuel Kant, and countless other philosophers wrote largely in response to Descartes. Yet there are serious doubts related to the treatise's major argument. In the Objections and Replies, a collection of objections to the work along with Descartes personal and often very detailed replies to said objections, the philosopher Antoine Arnauld raises the question of whether or not Descartes was guilty of circular reasoning....   [tags: Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy,]

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Descartes ' Meditations, Bouwsma, And Daniel C. Dennett 's Article On Who Am I?

- ... He then makes the link between vivid dreams and this life; is this life as we know it, simply a vivid dream. (Descartes and Clarke, 1998, p.19). He says that it is possible for you to be in a dream right now due to the fact that when you dream, you are simply in a fabrication of your own memory and imagination. Dreams are things put together that you have already experienced from your own conscience. As he says himself, ‘…As if I do not remember having being deluded by similar thoughts while asleep on other occasions!...this feeling of confusion almost confirms me in believing that I am asleep.’ (Descartes and Clarke, 1998, p.19)....   [tags: Skepticism, Mind, René Descartes, Epistemology]

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Thomas Hobbes and Rene Descartes: The Science of Man

- In this paper I intend to examine the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes and Rene Descartes, in particular their ideas relating to the science of man, and attempt to explain why their ideas prove that it is not possible to construct a science of man. I will also briefly mention the philosophy of Donald Davidson in regards to a science of man. The theories of Hobbes and the contemporary socio- biologists attempt to recognize how man works and on that basis build a society. "Hobbes wished to be seen as the inventor of the science of politics" (Sorell, p45) He went about this by looking at the psychology of man and discovering that man is a mechanism....   [tags: Descartes vs Hobbes]

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Descartes' Meditations

- Descartes' Meditations In Descartes’ meditations, Descartes begins what Bernard Williams has called the project of ‘pure enquiry’ to discover an indubitable premise or foundation to base his knowledge on, by subjecting everything to a kind of scepticism now known as Cartesian doubt. This is known as foundationalism, where a philosopher basis all epistemological knowledge on an indubitable premise. Within meditation one Descartes subjects all of his beliefs regarding sensory data and even existence to the strongest and most hyperbolic of doubts....   [tags: Philosophy Doubt Meditations Descartes Essays]

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Analysis Of Descartes 's ' Descartes '

- ... Since cause and effect have the same importance it only makes sense that the all powerful God could create the idea of God, so the amount of reality is the same. For this reason it is sufficient to conclude, God is the only possible cause of the idea of God. He created his own reality, and we know about it through an innate idea, placed in our mind. Descartes holds the principle of clear and distinct precepts to be knowledge that a God exists, and uses analogous reasoning to prove this point....   [tags: Mind, Ontology, Existence, Epistemology]

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How Descartes Tries to Extricate Himself from the Skeptical Doubts He Has Raised

- How Descartes Tries to Extricate Himself from the Skeptical Doubts He Has Raised [All page references and quotations from the Meditations are taken from the 1995 Everyman edition] In the Meditations, Descartes embarks upon what Bernard Williams has called the project of 'Pure Enquiry' to discover certain, indubitable foundations for knowledge. By subjecting everything to doubt Descartes hoped to discover whatever was immune to it. In order to best understand how and why Descartes builds his epistemological system up from his foundations in the way that he does, it is helpful to gain an understanding of the intellectual background of the 17th century that provided the motivation fo...   [tags: Descartes Philosophy Meditations Essays]

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Descartes and the Mind

- The topic of the mind and how do we know has been around since the beginning of time. It is one of those questions that will most likely never be answered. I mean, the mind itself is so perplexing that we are still learning stuff about it daily. One question that Descartes proposed was “how do we know?” we still are pondering this one today. We ask it almost every day, maybe not in that way but in some form or another. So honestly, how do we know. Whenever Descartes started studying about the mind he denounced all of his previous opinions and started fresh....   [tags: Methodological Doubt, Perfection]

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Nelson on Descartes's Theory of Perception and Judgment

- Nelson on Descartes?s Theory of Perception and Judgment ABSTRACT: One tension in Descartes?s account of human error stems from the idea that we may be faulted for our acts of will, despite the fact that God is our omnipotent and omniscient creator. In the present essay, I describe a second tension in Descartes?s account of human error. After describing the tension, I consider Alan Nelson?s characterization of the means by which Descartes?s intended to relieve it. Although Nelson's interpretation is almost correct, I think that it obscures some of the interesting details of Descartes?s theory of perception and judgment....   [tags: Descarte Philosophy]

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Descartes and Aristotle

- People live life one day at time with the same guidance from their ancestors, and they often question their existence in the universe and try to understand the world around them. People often question their existence in the universe. Philosophers try to answer questions that most people will not think of in their daily lives. Most philosophers try to get to the truth of logical questions through epistemology. Epistemology is a “branch of philosophy that studies the nature and possibility of knowledge” (Soccio)....   [tags: Rationalism, Priori, Posteriori, Philosophers]

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Analysis Of Descartes 's Meditations, By Rene Descartes

- In “Meditations,” Rene Descartes presents the idea on whether we can be certain we know what we think we know. To demonstrate this, Descartes presents three stages of doubt. The first stage of doubt he presents is the senses argument, followed by the dream argument and finally the voluntarist argument. Each stage of doubt is compelling since it shows that many of the information can easily be dubitable. After Descartes is finished analyzing what is dubitable and indubitable he begins to construct the proof of God’s existence....   [tags: Mind, Epistemology, Ontology, Existence]

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The Rationalist Camp By Rene Descartes

- n Stuart Dr. Dadlez Modern Philosophy (Date) Uncertainty In the rationalist camp, philosopher Rene Descartes sought to refute skepticism by doubting all of which he had formerly believed to be true. While this methodology might strike some as counterintuitive it appears to work for Descartes. Descartes’ six meditations provide a compelling account of what lengths a person can go to in questioning everything, including one’s existence. In his quest for knowledge Descartes begins in a secluded place, presumably to contemplate and begin writing....   [tags: Ontology, Metaphysics, Mind, Epistemology]

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Descartes ' Argument For The Existence Of God

- ... It is vital for Descartes to bring this premise about so that he can justify his claim that his ideas of God can come from an outside source. This allows him to later site God as the thing that gives him his ideas. The third premise of Descartes’ argument attempts to give the readers a better understanding of the idea that he has about God. Descartes says that God is a perfect being while also being infinite (157). He must describe his own thoughts on God in this premise because it sets up the rest of the argument to help prove that this thought is not just a random one that came into his mind....   [tags: Mind, Thought, Human, Existence]

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The Evil Deceiver By Descartes

- ... For example, rocks exist in the formal reality as tangible earth material, but rocks do not exist in the presentational ideas realm. The concept of the rock - the idea of a rough, jagged stone - however exists in the realm of ideas. Furthermore, Descartes describes a spectrum of infinity and the finite, in which ideas exist at an infinite level. On the next level down, finite substances exist, such as the aforementioned rock. Last, modifications and properties of those substances, including color and hardness, exist....   [tags: Existence, Ontology, Metaphysics, Existence of God]

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Descartes ' Theory Of The Mind And Body

- ... The second argument from clear and distinct perception is explored in Mediation II where Descartes goes on to argue that he knows that he thinks and then questions his identity by asking “what am I?” This question can be solved by understanding what it is for me to exist. By finding out what his core features are, if he were to be without those particular features, he would cease to be what he is. For example, for an island to be considered an island, it would have to be enclosed by a lake or river....   [tags: Mind, Philosophy of mind, Dualism, Thought]

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Descartes Argument for the Existence of God

- Descartes employs what is known as an ontological argument to prove the existence of God. Saint Anselm who lived during the 11th century first formulated this type of argument. Since then it has proved popular with many philosophers including Rene` Descartes. Even though ontological arguments have lost popularity with modern philosophers there has been some recent attempts to revive them. Descartes formulation is regarded as being one of the best because it is straight forward and relatively easy to follow....   [tags: philosophy, theology]

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A Summary of Descartes and His Thoughts

- Descartes claim of ‘Cogito ergo sum’ marked a sharp departure from what philosophy was in his time. He started from the basic principle of rationalism and he concluded that ‘I think, therefore I exist’. In his Meditation II, Descartes hits an epistemological ground zero. Here it is that Descartes begins his startling point, “And thus, having reflected well, and carefully examined all things, we have finally to conclude that this declaration, Ego sum, ego existo, is necessarily true every time I propound of mentally apprehend it.” In this statement he affirms his existence and later concludes that he was a res cogitans -- a thinking thing, “that is to say a mind, an understanding or reason-t...   [tags: philosophical analysis]

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Third Meditation, by Rene Descartes

- In the Third Meditation, Descartes forms a proof for the existence of God. He begins by laying down a foundation for what he claims to know and then offers an explanation for why he previously accepted various ideas but is no longer certain of them. Before he arrives at the concept of God, Descartes categorizes ideas and the possible sources that they originate from. He then distinguishes between the varying degrees of reality that an idea can possess, as well as the cause of an idea. Descartes proceeds to investigate the idea of an infinite being, or God, and how he came to acquire such an idea with more objective reality than he himself has....   [tags: God, Exploring Notions]

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The Mind and the World: Descartes Meditations

- C. Santos Professor R. Boeker The Mind and the World Due: October 18, 2013 Descartes presents three skeptical arguments in his meditations which shows he has reason to doubt all of his sensory beliefs. Descartes ultimately aims to free himself from all bad beliefs. His quest for certainty is driven from his belief that our belief system is built on a foundation of basic beliefs, that are not justified, in turn, causing him to believe that all his other beliefs are uncertain, as well. His method for achieving a system immune from errors is described in three steps from Meditation One....   [tags: dream, reality, evil genius, beliefs]

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Descartes and the Real Distinction

- Descartes' formulation of what he calls the “Real Distinction” has proved foundational to our modern concepts of being and consciousness. His contention has irreversibly influenced the fields of psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and others while cementing into the popular consciousness the notion of a definite dichotomy between the mind and the body. In this paper, I will flesh out what Descartes' meant by the term “real distinction,” discuss the arguments he uses in its' defense, and then argue myself that this distinction between mind and body (at least as Descartes frames it) goes much too far, and that it is a much more viable probability to believe that mind and body are actually i...   [tags: Philosophy]

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A Brief Look at the Philosophy of Descartes

- ... The Method of Doubt ultimately contains the idea of getting rid of all uncertain beliefs, confirming that only beliefs that are entirely true remain in one’s viewpoint. Descartes even goes on to use examples like even conscious or asleep, two plus three is always five. Still, the evil genius puzzles us, we perhaps think two plus three is four but in fact it will always be five and it is continuously true. Another example can be while an individual is within a silent deep sleep we are unsure whether there is any thinking going on whatsoever....   [tags: method of doubt]

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Descartes' Ideas on the Existence of God

- Through out history there have been questions of where we come from and how we got here. It all comes down to the question of God’s existence. God’s existence has never been questioned during the times of when Christianity, Judaism and Islam were born. The question of God’s existence comes from our new way of thinking after these religions. Science has made us think of how things work in our world and brings Gods existence into question. There were no scientific studies done during the days of Jesus to prove that God exists, so where did the people in history get this idea of God from....   [tags: philosophy, religion]

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Descartes ' Theory Of Knowledge

- ... Descartes briefly considers the imagination as a trustworthy source of knowledge, but concludes understanding the infinite number of forms wax can take is impossible. For example, imagine a five-sided pentagon. Now, try to imagine a chiliagon, a pentagon with 1000 sides. It is unachievable and proves the imagination cannot be completely relied upon as a source of knowledge. Descartes’ strengthens his position of the mind as the most reliable source of knowledge through his dream argument. While we dream, we feel physical sensation, yet Descartes’ claims we cannot differentiate between dreams and the waking experience....   [tags: Epistemology, Truth, Reality, Rationalism]

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Descartes' Second and Sixth and Meditations

- Throughout Descartes second and sixth meditations there seems to be a tension rising between the fact of whether or not the mind and body are distinct. By analyzing both meditations it appears that Descartes’ perspectives are contradictory of each other and need to be further evaluated in order to reveal his true meaning. By saying, in the second meditation, that we perceive things by means of our intellect alone, and in the sixth meditation, that we do not perceive pain by means of the intellect alone but rather by an intermingling of our intellect and our senses, Descartes brings forth the questionable tension....   [tags: philosophy]

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The Life of René Descartes

- Born March, 31st 1569 in La Haye en Touraine France, René Descartes was a very significant philosopher, mathematician, scientist and writer. He attended a Jesuit college at La Flèche. Later named “The Father of Modern Philosophy”, much of western philosophies are a reaction to his books which have been studied meticulously for centuries. Many elements of René’s philosophy have many similarities to that of Aristotle. Descartes was a very influential figure during the 17th century continental rationalist....   [tags: Biographical Essay, science, biography]

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Descartes' Ideas on The Existence of God

- Descartes begins his Meditations by doubting everyone, “beating the Pyrrhic skeptics at their own game”. He begins his journey by declaring that we can only have knowledge if we are completely certain of that knowledge. Further, that the only way to have certain knowledge of something is if we can know it using something completely reliable. So he begins with what most of us assume – the senses reliably tell us reality. I see the rain because rain exists; I can sit on this chair because the chair exists; my coffee is hot because there is hot coffee in front of me, and so on....   [tags: Philosophy]

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The Existence Of God By Rene Descartes

- ... Descartes ' proof would be best explained this way: “Though my idea of God might have come from my father, and my father 's idea of God might have come from a priest, the suggestion is that at the end of that causal chain, there is a first cause, which is God.” The causal chain is that when there is a cause, there is an effect that follows. What this proof means is that all things have a beginning. All the change in the universe starts from some unmovable source. In this case, that unmovable source is the “first cause,” or God....   [tags: Metaphysics, Ontology, Ontological argument, Plato]

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Descartes vs. Spinoza on Substance

- Throughout the history of metaphysics the question, What is. has always been answered in an incomplete,unsatisfactory or complicated manner, but Spinoza tried to answer this question in an exceptional way simply by describing God and His essence. Based on Spinoza’s views, God’s qualities can be referred to as attributes and modes are merely affections of a substance. This paper will provide a detailed view of Spinoza’s key ontological definition of God as the only substance, his attributes, and their co-relations....   [tags: ontological definition of God ]

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Descartes And The Apostle Paul

- ... Descartes ponders the thought of what if what we think is true is an illusion and we are being deceived. He writes, “And yet firmly rooted in my mind is the long standing opinion that there is an omnipotent God who made me the kind of creature that I am. How do I know that he has not brought it about that there is no earth, no sky, no extended thing, no shape, no size, no place, while at the same time ensuring that all these things appear to me to exist just as they do now?” Very interesting and valid question when wondering why we perceive things the way we do....   [tags: Mind, Christianity, Free will, Metaphysics]

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The Descartes ' Theory Of Substance Dualism

- ... The principal of Indiscernibility of Identities states that two objects, X and Y, are identical if and only if X has the same and only the same properties as Y. If the mind can exist without the body, and therefore have a property that the body does not, then the mind and the body are not identical. It then follows that the mind and body are two separate substances. Now that we have established that the mind and body are two different substances, we can look at Princess Elizabeth 's objection to Substance Dualism....   [tags: Philosophy of mind, Mind, Ontology, Soul]

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The Problem Of Dualism : Descartes

- ... It meets the requirement of dualism that a body is doing mechanical action while the mind is not thinking. Furthermore, the people who have disabilities of body is also a example of mind-body dualism. These examples unilaterally prove that the existence of mind does not require the existence of body, and vice versa. Actually Descartes makes a category-mistake in his argument that the mind is a non-physical substance. "The Concept of Mind" which is written by Ryle 's shows that the thesis of his article is that the official doctrine, as he calls Cartesian dualism, has central principles that are unsound, and that "conflict with the whole body of what we know about minds when we are not s...   [tags: Mind, Philosophy of mind, Consciousness, Thought]

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Descartes' Proof of God's Existence

- The existence of God has always been an arguable topic. Descartes’ however, believed that he had proof of God’s existence through an intense analysis of the mind. Throughout this paper I will discuss what he has provided as proof and some of the complications that arise throughout his argument. You can find Descartes’ proof of the existence of God in the Third Meditation. Although to understand this argument you have to look at his previous meditation where he begins to build his argument with the notion that in order for him to think, he must exist....   [tags: Philosophy]

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Descartes ' Philosophy And Physiology

- Philosophy and Physiology joined in an entangled romance of the mind to breed and nurture a new science called Psychology. Of the many pursuits and endeavors or Philosophers and Physiologists they probably did not intend to influence a new science in the way that they did. The beginning of psychology started with the debates of mind and body. Psychology was forming from the work of philosophers like Rene Descartes, and Physiologists like Hermann Helmholtz, and was developing its own prevalence in the world....   [tags: Mind, Psychology, Consciousness]

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904 words | (2.6 pages) | Preview

Descartes 's Idea Of Certainty

- 1. Page 70, first new paragraph. What conclusion does Descartes tentatively reach in this paragraph. What premises does he provide in support of this conclusion. Descartes says that he has the ability to think—that if he has the ability to think, then he must have other abilities that he 's unaware of as well. However, he really questions the idea of certainty and how an individual can really be certain of something. Since you really can 't be certain because it 's really up to your own interpretation and your own understanding, then it 's really up to you to decide what 's considered to be certain....   [tags: Perception, Sense, Mind, Cognition]

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Aristotle, Rousseau and Descartes on Technology

- While it is relatively easy to confuse the ideas of Aristotle, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and René Descartes, ancient philosophy, eighteenth century politics, and mathematics all appear to be considerably disconnected subjects. Associated with these divisions are three different opinions on a common subject matter: technology. It appears that Rousseau directly opposes technology, Aristotle’s opinion rests in the middle but also shares similarities with Rousseau, and Descartes favors technology. After reading Rousseau’s Discourse On the Origin of Inequality, Aristotle’s The Nicomachean Ethics and Descartes’s The Discourse on Method, one can draw these conclusions....   [tags: phylosophical ideas]

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Descartes: Knowledge is Truth

- Descartes: Knowledge is Truth With the emergence of the scientific revolution in the 17th century, views of society and nature were transformed throughout Europe. There were great developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, and chemistry. The world and its views were changing, and with that change, came a new change in thought, a new change in philosophy. Apart from ancient Greek philosophy, which was centered on finding order in a vast variety of things by searching for a fundamental amalgamating principle, Descartes sought to establish order via some fundamental division....   [tags: scientific revolution, astronomy, perception]

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Descartes ' Most Popular Theory

- ... In Meditation Six, Descartes introduces the problem of the existence of material things by saying objects exist since he can clearly and distinctly perceive them but because of imagination, it can be a deception. He claims this is true since God is not deceiving, but since imagination can give evidence of the existence of external objects he wanted to know more. He first made the distinction between imagination and intellect. He explains how imagination is distinct from thought since we can think of things without intuiting them as present (62)....   [tags: Mind, Perception, Cognition, Thought]

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Rene Descartes: Cartesian Dualism

- Descartian dualism is one of the most long lasting legacies of Rene Descartes’ philosophy. He argues that the mind and body operate as separate entities able to exist without one another. That is, the mind is a thinking, non-extended entity and the body is non-thinking and extended. His belief elicited a debate over the nature of the mind and body that has spanned centuries, a debate that is still vociferously argued today. In this essay, I will try and tackle Descartes claim and come to some conclusion as to whether Descartes is correct to say that the mind and body are distinct....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Mind-Body Problem]

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Biography f Rene Descartes

- ... In 1628, Rene moved to the Dutch Republic where he lived for over 20 years. During this time period, he learned more about mathematics, utilizing his spare time. Rene Descartes published many works on philosophy and mathematics at this time. He also came in contact with the school of Dordrecht's principal, Isaac Beeckman. However, in 1630, the two parted ways as Rene Descartes charged Beeckham with plagiarizing his original ideas. Descartes decided not to publish his work “Treatise On The World” because he had heard of the censorship of Galileo's writings in 1633 by the Catholic Church....   [tags: cartesian philosophy, meditation]

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Weaknesses of Descartes' Arguments

- Descartes was incorrect and made mistakes in his philosophical analysis concerning understanding the Soul and the foundation of knowledge.  Yes, he coined the famous phrase, “I think therefore I am,” but the rest of his philosophical conclusions fail to be as solid (Meditation 4; 32). Descartes knew that if he has a mind and is thinking thoughts then he must be something that has the ability to think. While he did prove that he is a thinking thing that thinks (Meditation 3; 28), he was unable to formulate correct and true philosophical arguments and claims.  For instance, his argument for faith that a non-deceiving God exists and allows us to clearly reason and perceive was a circular argume...   [tags: Philosophy]

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Objections to Descartes’ Interactionism

- In the following essay I will be offering some objections to Descartes’ interactionism as is primarily represented in his works The Passions of the Soul, Part I and Correspondence with Princess Elisabeth, Concerning the Union of Mind and Body. I will start by describing the basic features of how Descartes’ notion of interactionism works. Namely, that the pineal gland is the “principle seat” of the mind because it is the only singular part of the brain. The pineal gland also has a range of movements, which correspond to the body and to the soul to the capacity that it can be ‘thrusted’ by either the soul or the animal spirits....   [tags: the pasion of the soul]

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Appraisal of René Descartes

- In his works, Meditations on First Philosophy and The Passions of the Soul, René Descartes lays out his views on the mind. Descartes is a dualist, specifically an interactionalist, which is someone who believes that mental states and physical states are distinct from one another, yet still affect each other. This view, however, faces significant obstacles, to which Descartes believes he has an answer for. In this paper I will outline Descartes’ argument for the distinctness between the mind and body, explicate the problems his theory faces, and conclude that his dualist account cannot survive the objections....   [tags: Dualism, Argumentative Essay]

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Who is Rene Descartes?

- Born in La Haye, France, which was later renamed Descartes in honour of his irrefutable ground-breaking work, René Descartes (see Figure 1) was an innovative thinker, often dubbed the father of modern philosophy. Having lived to the age of 53 (1596-1650), comparatively short to current times, Descartes certainly made the best of his five decades on this earth. He was educated at the propitious Jesuit college of La Flèche, where he studied traditional Aristotelian philosophy among other various subjects....   [tags: Biogrpahy, France, Innvative Thinker]

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Descartes Perception about God

- From Descartes' perception, nature is a depiction of God; therefore, God must fundamentally exist, to the extent that as he, too, is an outcome of His own creation. Descartes was one of many thinkers who fully braced this argument in support of God's actuality, challenging that the external world is the dominant force behind the existence of all persons. Descartes' claims, as depicted inside the scholarly borders of Meditations on First Philosophy, were created not in astrophysical or ontological quarrels but rather in teleological debate, to the extent that the philosopher thought that there has to be an all-powerful entity accountable for all the drive and command that is found within phys...   [tags: philospher, life, world, exist]

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Rene Descartes: Trouble Kid

- If we go back to school days and think about the “trouble kid”, the pal who make us get into troubles, the one who complicates everything, we could think about Rene Descartes in that way. Until his works, the world of philosophy was driven for a natural thought: we can think about things that we see and trust in our thoughts. The philosophy went from object that appeared to subject that thought it. After Descartes, there is a big turn, because after him, we cannot trust naturally in our mind, we have to put everything parenthesis, doubt about everything and we are the constructors of the reality, philosophy goes from subject who think to object thought, and this is a big problem....   [tags: subject, think, modern, problem]

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Descartes's Views on Skepticism

- To be a skeptic means that one disbelieves what others consider truth. For example, skepticism could apply to an atheist. Atheism is the non-belief in God, therefore and atheist would be a skeptic. Skepticism is a healthy attitude as one should question the ideas they are given, but they should not take it so far that they do not believe in anything. Descartes, says, “Several years have now passed since I first realized how numerous were the false opinions that in my youth I had taken to be true, and thus how doubtful were all those that I had subsequently built upon them.” (Ariew, pg 104)....   [tags: trust, conflict, unhappiness]

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Rene Descartes' True Intelligence

- The names “stupid”, “idiotic”, “dumb”, and “foolish” will all be heard eventually in a lifetime. When people misinterpret or not understand a topic, they are labeled with these names. Though, the truly “stupid” and “idiotic” people are those who possess brilliant minds, but do not apply their knowledge into their lives. On the other hand, the people who are certainly ingenious are the people who attempt to use their minds to solve dilemmas in the world, even if “the dilemma” was forgetting your lunch money....   [tags: knowledge, decision, wisdom]

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Rene Descartes

- René Descartes was born on March 31, 1596, in La Haye, France, which has been renamed after him, Descartes. He was the baby out of his three siblings. His mom named Jeanne Brochard had died before he turned one year old. His father, Joachim Brochard, a council member in the provincial parliament, sent his kids to live with their grandmother. The father left them with the grandmother while he himself remarried and enjoyed the bliss of not having children under his feet. He still was a stickler for a good education and having a legacy so he sent 8 year old Rene to the Jesuit college of Henri IV where he stayed until he was 15....   [tags: coordinate plane, skepticism, math]

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Rene Descartes: French Mathematician and Philosopher

- ... 9). Faced with the fact that he is capable of doubt, Descartes hypothesized that he is imperfect and since there is an order to the world and perfection outside of human existence, this is proof of an all-powerful perfect being, God. This six part essay, translated from French to English many times in its time since the 17th century, serves to preface many of the more scientific based works of Descartes (Kraus & Hunt, 2007). Descartes asks the hard questions in the reality of human existence in this most vital portion of the Discourse....   [tags: father of modern philosophy]

Term Papers
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Descartes: A Paradigm Shift in Philosophical Thinking

- Descartes, often referred to as the “father of modern philosophy,” solidified his foundational role in abstract thinking with his work “Meditations on First Philosophy.” This piece sought to prove the existence of God, as well as provide a criticism of our epistemic standards and values. By undergoing a thought experiment that involved a form of methodological skepticism, Descartes attempted to analyze his beliefs from a clean surface, to see how many of his typical thoughts and beliefs he would be able to keep....   [tags: Meditations on First Philosophy]

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Descartes’ Ambiguity of Innate and Adventitious Ideas

- In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes illustrates that the objective reality of some of his ideas seems so great that he cannot be the cause of such ideas, thus something else also exists in the world (29). Though Descartes inquires particularly into adventitious ideas to support his claim, he does not offer the definitions of innate and adventitious ideas clearly, nor does he explain the differences of them in any detail. In this paper, I will demonstrate that the ambiguity of innate and adventitious ideas undermines Descartes’ argument....   [tags: god, thinking, reasoning]

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The Question of Free Will: Descartes, Hume, and Nietzsche

- The power of acting without necessity and acting on one’s own discretions, free will still enamors debates today, as it did in the past with philosophers Nietzsche, Descartes, and Hume. There are two strong opposing views on the topic, one being determinism and the other “free will”. Determinism, or the belief a person lacks free will and all events including human actions are determined by forces outside the will of an individual contrasts the entire premise of free will. Rene Descartes formulates his philosophical work through deductive reasoning and follows his work with his system of reasoning....   [tags: Free Will Essays]

Term Papers
2066 words | (5.9 pages) | Preview

Meditation on First Philosophy by Rene Descartes

- “Cogito ergo sum - I think therefore I am.” A mathematician, scientific thinker, and metaphysician Rene Descartes used this term in his “Meditation on First Philosophy.” This term has become famous especially in western philosophy. However, this term was not Descartes only legacy. His legacies include the development of the Cartesian coordinates, philosophical books, and theories. Even though the distinction between mind and body can be traced to the Greeks, Descartes account of the mind and body relationship has been considered the first and the most influential....   [tags: god, greek, mind, body]

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Rene Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy

- In Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes does and experiment with wax to try to prove that things actually exist in this world. This essay is going to prove how we can tell that things actually exist and what can perceive the wax. Rene Descartes starts off with a description of the wax so he can prove to us the changes that will happen throughout his experiment. “Let us take, for instance, this piece of wax. It has been taken quite recently from the honeycomb; it has not yet lost all the honey flavor....   [tags: meditation on first philosophy]

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Comparing Descartes and Peirce's Opinions On Knowledge

- ... Charles Peirce believed “only through the way of linguistic, logical and pragmatic signs considered as tools and objects can humans know about the natural world.” (Kremer) Whereas Descartes wants us to doubt, Peirce believed doubt was a cause of irritation arising from indecisiveness in matters of action. Peirce stated, “The function of thought was to produce belief, after it had been excited by doubt” and the effect of thought, which is belief, involves a habit which in turn is a “rule of action” so that belief becomes a “habit of action.” Instead of creating a new method, the way Descartes did, Peirce applied the scientific method....   [tags: doubting, truth, beliefs]

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Descartes 's Theory Of Substance Dualism

- ... Nevertheless, the mental substance can exist without a body because I can conceive that I exist without a body, and conceiving something makes something possible Descartes concludes that substance dualism is true because I can be present in the moment without a physical appearance. We have the ability to think and the ability to move and these two qualities define substance dualism Descartes states in his first premise that if I can exist without a body, then I am not a body. In order for Descartes to explain his premise he derives unto the argument that is premise three, the Principle of Identity....   [tags: Mind, Ontology, Argument, Fertilisation]

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1347 words | (3.8 pages) | Preview

Descartes: Relationship Between Mind and Body

- In Meditation Six entitled “Concerning the Existence of Material Things, and Real Distinction between the Mind and Body”, one important thing Descartes explores is the relationship between the mind and body. Descartes believes the mind and body are separated and they are two difference substances. He believes this to be clearly and distinctly true which is a Cartesian quality for true knowledge. I, on the other hand, disagree that the mind and body are separate and that the mind can exist without the body....   [tags: Existence of Material Things, Analysis]

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935 words | (2.7 pages) | Preview

Rene Descartes and George Berkeley on God

- Rene Descartes builds his epistemic views in his meditations. In Meditation 1, he set out to rid himself of the false knowledge which was the foundation for which he built his life. If there was any doubt to these foundational beliefs, he threw the idea out. Descartes broke down his beliefs in Mediation 2 and found that he is a thinking thing and because he thinks, he exists. That is, he knew he is at least a mind. By Meditation 3, Descartes built upon the foundations of the two previous meditations and defined substances....   [tags: philosophical analysis]

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904 words | (2.6 pages) | Preview

Descartes' First Proof of The Existence of God

- The 17th century philosopher Rene Descartes believed that God exists. His proof of an all perfect being’s existence was explained by having an idea of God that had to have been caused by God. But simply having an idea of God is not enough for there to necessarily exist such a being. This paper will critically examine Descartes’s causal argument though its premises and conclusion. Descartes makes an attempt to prove God’s existence throughout his third meditation. In his first premise he states that he has an idea of an infinitely perfect being....   [tags: Philosophy]

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