Race is an ambiguous concept possessed by individuals, and according to sociologists Michael Omi and Howard Winant, it is socially constructed. Race divides people into categories which causes needless cultural and social tensions. The concept of race also causes inclusion, exclusion, and segregation in the U.S. Both inclusion and exclusion tie together to create the overall process of segregation; one notion cannot occur without resulting in the others. Segregation is a form of separation in terms of race that includes the processes of inclusion and exclusion. Race was the main factor that caused conflicts among people in society in the domains of culture, education, and residential. Residential segregation is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods, or a form of segregation that “sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level.” The purpose of this paper is to explain why residential segregation exist in this society, how is it that racial segregation maintains racial inequality, how racial segregation limits non-whites’ opportunities in education, employment, asset building, and social integration, and to explain what is the relationship between residential segregation and crime.
The physical separation of the races by forcing residence to reside in certain areas is an institutional mechanism of racism that was designed to protect whites from social interaction with minorities. Historically, American cities have always been segregated by race, ethnicity, and income. This ethnic segregation in housing has been the result of several factors: the historic practice of de jure segregation, covert discrim...
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...ery. These crime rates generally appear to be much higher in predominantly black neighborhoods in most U.S. cities than in more racially diverse or primarily white neighborhoods. For example, if a person lives in a highly segregated neighborhood, with a high fraction poor individuals, he may expect a substantial fraction of his neighbors to act criminally. Therefore, in order to protect himself and his property, he may choose to engage in violent activity as a way of deterring his neighbors from victimizing him (Bjerk, David). It is like a repetitive cycle. Minorities are located in high-crime areas, with no positive role models to lead them in the right direction which leads to no education background, which then leads to being unemployed, which leads to them trying to find a way to survive, which lastly leads to crime, as seen in minorities eyes, their only way out.
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