P Xylene And Toluene Solution Essay

P Xylene And Toluene Solution Essay

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The freezing point of p-xylene was calculated by taking the average calculated Kf of the three trials of the p-xylene and toluene solution. The average of the three trials was computed as 4.56(C/m) as shown in Table 1, however, the theoretical value was slightly lower than calculated, 4.3(C/m). This resulted in a 6.04% error as shown in Equation 5; possible causes of error could have resulted from adding too much solute or too little solvent, then the calculations would have been off given that the solution was not dilute enough. Having too much solvent could be attributed to having a higher Kf than the theoretical value, given that the solute would not have as much impact on the pure substance, p-xylene. This would raise the Kf value, bringing it closer to the solvent’s Kf. Another source of error resulting in the higher Kf could have resulted from contamination of the solvent or solute, given that it could introduce a polar substance or different molecules which would alter the hydrogen bonding.
Using the previously calculated Kf, the molar masses of unknown substances A, C, and D were able to be calculated. However, given that the original Kf was slightly larger than the theoretical value, the molar masses were significantly higher than the masses using the theoretical value as shown in Equation 3 and Equation 4. The molar masses of the unknown substances were able to be calculated with the equations given that they were nonpolar solutes dissolved into a nonpolar solvent. Given this, the solute and solvent particles would not interact with each other. The interactions between both nonpolar substances are weak, yet with ethanol, a polar substance the equations previously used for the unknown substances would not successfully...

... middle of paper ...

...The mass of the solvent, p-xylene, was measured after obtaining 2mL as well as the mass of 10 drops of toluene, the solute. The temperature of the solution rose to the freezing point after supercooling, then continued to drop as the solution froze, versus stabilizing as the pure p-xylene did. The maximum temperature obtained after supercooling was recorded as the freezing point of the solution. This process was repeated three times, each with a new test tube, then the Tf was calculated for each trial, as well as the average Kf. The final portion of the lab consisted of determining the molar masses of unknown solutes. The same procedure as above was followed, with the substitution of 10 drops of an unknown instead of toluene, and only one trial per unknown. The experimentally gathered molar masses were then computed and compared to the given compounds molar masses.

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