Using the previously calculated Kf, the molar masses of unknown substances A, C, and D were able to be calculated. However, given that the original Kf was slightly larger than the theoretical value, the molar masses were significantly higher than the masses using the theoretical value as shown in Equation 3 and Equation 4. The molar masses of the unknown substances were able to be calculated with the equations given that they were nonpolar solutes dissolved into a nonpolar solvent. Given this, the solute and solvent particles would not interact with each other. The interactions between both nonpolar substances are weak, yet with ethanol, a polar substance the equations previously used for the unknown substances would not successfully...
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...The mass of the solvent, p-xylene, was measured after obtaining 2mL as well as the mass of 10 drops of toluene, the solute. The temperature of the solution rose to the freezing point after supercooling, then continued to drop as the solution froze, versus stabilizing as the pure p-xylene did. The maximum temperature obtained after supercooling was recorded as the freezing point of the solution. This process was repeated three times, each with a new test tube, then the Tf was calculated for each trial, as well as the average Kf. The final portion of the lab consisted of determining the molar masses of unknown solutes. The same procedure as above was followed, with the substitution of 10 drops of an unknown instead of toluene, and only one trial per unknown. The experimentally gathered molar masses were then computed and compared to the given compounds molar masses.
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- The freezing point of p-xylene was calculated as 13.29C after averaging the data that appeared on Graph 1 once the temperature leveled off. With this value, the Tf for each trial was able to be calculated through Equation 1, which led to Kf being calculated in Equation 2. Both equations were able to be used given that the measurements were in terms of molality, which is not temperature dependent. After completing calculations, the average Kf of the three trials of the p-xylene and toluene solution was computed as as 4.56(C/m) as shown in Table 1, however, the theoretical value was slightly lower than calculated, 4.3(C/m).... [tags: Solvent, Solubility, Melting point]
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