Osteonecrosis of Jaw: Story of Bisphosphonates Essay

Osteonecrosis of Jaw: Story of Bisphosphonates Essay

Length: 3360 words (9.6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Term Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

Osteonecrosis of Jaw: Story of Bisphosphonates
Introduction:
Bisphosphonates (BPs), also known as diphosphonates are class of drugs used for prevention and treatment of bone related disorders. They came into existence in 19th century and were primarily used as detergents, water softener, anticorrosive, and antiscaling agents (Russell, Watts, Ebetino, & Rogers, 2008). In 1960s, after understanding their properties and mechanism of action their use was determined in humans. BPs acted as antiresorptive agents with high affinity towards skeletal tissue. Their unique characteristics of controlling calcium and phosphate dissolution thereby preventing of loss of mineralized tissue attracted many industries and created potential market for their development. BPs were developed and used in the treatment of bone diseases such as Paget’s disease, multiple myeloma, hypercalcemia of malignancy, and osteoporosis.
Structure and mechanism of action:
BPs has a P-C-P backbone. They are synthetic analogs of inorganic pyrophosphate in which the oxygen is substituted by carbon. The R1 and R2 side-chains attached to the carbon atom are responsible for the large range of activity observed among the BPs. R1 enhances the binding to hydroxyapatite while R2 determines anti-resorptive properties and carbon enhances chemical stability and resistance to enzymatic degradation (Russell et al., 2008). Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BisphosStruct.svg
There are 2 main types of BPs: nitrogen containing and non nitrogen containing. Depending on their type the mode of action differs. The nitrogen containing BPs are more potent and exert their action via inhibition of the mevalonate pathway which is by binding and blocki...


... middle of paper ...


...Watts, N. B., Ebetino, F. H., & Rogers, M. J. (2008). Mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: Similarities and differences and their potential influence on clinical efficacy. Osteoporosis International, 19(6), 733-759.
Schwartz, H. C. (2005). Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 63(10), 1555-1556.
Silverman, S. L., & Landesberg, R. (2009). Osteonecrosis of the jaw and the role of bisphosphonates: A critical review. The American Journal of Medicine, 122(2S), 33-45.
V.M. Cartsos, S. Zhu and A.I. Zavras,. (2008). Bisphosphonate use and the risk of adverse jaw outcomes: A medical claims study of 714,217 people. J Am Dent Assoc, 139, 23-30.
Woo, S. B., Hellstein, J. W., & Kalmar, J. R. (2006). Systematic review: Bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaws. Annals of Internal Medicine, 144(10), 753.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Osteoporosis Is A Disease That Weakens Bones Essay examples

- Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones for a number of reasons including: hormonal changes, loss of tissue, or not getting enough calcium and vitamin D. This disease is a silent disease, meaning that there is no signs of you developing it. The only time you will realize or be concerned about having it, is after you have a bone fracture.The fractures that happen because of this disease happen in your upper arms, spine, pelvis, wrist, ankles, and hips. This disease is most common in elderly people because once you hit a certain age, your bone breaks down faster than your formation in your bone can happen....   [tags: Osteoporosis, Bone, Bisphosphonate, Menopause]

Term Papers
1549 words (4.4 pages)

Iron Jaw Angels : Women 's Rights Essay

- For too long, women has been deprived equal rights as men. Even though women played a vital role in the building of this nation, they are deprived the rights of first class citizenship. Especially in the late 1800s and early 1900s, women were instrumental in upholding a traditional family values, they helped in the industrial age, they took care of war victims during the First World War, women worked overtime in the weapon factory to make sure the American military had a steady supply during the War and many more participation to ensure a smooth and enjoyable society is achieved....   [tags: Women's suffrage, Suffragette]

Term Papers
1261 words (3.6 pages)

Essay on I Feel My Jaw Fall Open

- I feel my jaw fall open. "Claire?" Claire sits on top Mark Peterson, the most popular boy in the school. She pauses in her make-out session with him before turning to me. "What are you doing him?!" I gesture over to where Mark sits with a bored expression on his face. She gives me a confused look and tilts her head to the side. "I thought it would be for the best. Since you 're gay and all." Now it 's my time to be confused. "Last night remember. You told me you were a virgin. I 'm the hottest girl in this school....   [tags: English-language films, 2000 albums, Eye color]

Term Papers
1735 words (5 pages)

Analysis Of The Story ' The Story Of An Hour ' Essay

- Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour” comprises clashing expectations and desires in an ironic fashion. The protagonist, Louise, mainly desires to live life free from the will of others—to “live for herself.” Her brief liberation comes from the news that her husband had died that morning in a train crash. From that moment onwards, the story revolves entirely around the idea of freedom, including several metaphors and visual images depicting free will, eventually culminating in the protagonist’s ultimate freedom--death....   [tags: Short story, Fiction, Symbol, A Story]

Term Papers
1001 words (2.9 pages)

Story Analysis : My Story Essay

- I wanted to write a story that featured a narrator recalling a series of anecdotes about experiences he had shared with his uncle and father and the dynamics that were involved with these relationships – which leads to him finding some sort of peace with himself as he accepts the differences of his uncle and father. However, the story I ended up writing, was about a young man processing his emotions in regards to the death of his favorite uncle and not being able to come to terms with his emotional distress – in the end, my story didn’t really accomplish anything and this is something that I clearly need to change....   [tags: Fiction, Short story, Revision, Essay]

Term Papers
722 words (2.1 pages)

A Love Story Essay examples

- Daisy is sitting in the back of the bus. She is enjoying the ride and looking out the window. The bus then abruptly stops and she was thrown forward in her seat. Fred then walks on to the bus and sees, that the only seat left is the one next to Daisy.Fred sat down with a huff and he began to make himself comfortable. The bus then began to move and they were back on the road. Five minutes into the ride, Daisy was busy writing her song and then was singing the song quietly to herself. As she is singing, Fred rudely says “do you mind” to Daisy....   [tags: short story]

Term Papers
1957 words (5.6 pages)

Unititled Story Essay

- She was walking down a vaguely familiar stone hallway. Light flickered eerily from the torches placed just slightly too far apart. An odd grey fog pressed against the windowpanes like a noxious gas. Emory frowned at a suit of armor. Oh, Merlin, where am I now. she thought, dismally. The girl knew she certainly wasn’t in her hotel anymore, and definitely not in her room. She looked down at herself and saw she was still wearing the small navy coloured tank top and sweats she went to bed in. Emory eyed her hands oddly....   [tags: story]

Term Papers
978 words (2.8 pages)

Redemption in The Story of B Essay

- Redemption in The Story of B The Story of B portrays the spirit of revolutionary thinking through several people who originate at opposite ends of culture and discover a common cause which unites them in a single purpose. Concern for the destiny of mankind impels one man to "brace an entire culture". This man, dubbed "B" for blasphemer by the society he seeks to save, devotes his life to the instructing of selected intellectuals to fulfill the redemption of man. B, a man "bound to be killed"(114), faces rioters to deliver his message of salvation and destiny to a Catholic priest whose superiors sent him to spy on B....   [tags: Story]

Term Papers
835 words (2.4 pages)

Essay on The Zoo Story

- Edward Albee once said, "Every honest work is a personal or private yowl, a statement of one's individual pleasure or pain". The Zoo Story shows the attempt of the character Jerry to make a statement about himself, his life, his pleasure, his pain. It is, in effect, his "yowl." Language is his means. Albee shows that language does indeed have the potential to "facilitate authentic communication" between Jerry and Peter (738). As the play begins, Jerry announces that "every once in awhile I like to talk to somebody, really talk; like to get to know somebody, know all about him." He is eager to identify with someone, anyone really....   [tags: The Zoo Story Essays]

Free Essays
560 words (1.6 pages)

Short Story Essay

- Synopsis On an afternoon, in the quarters of the sakadas, Mang Sixto is playing a guitar with the chords of an emotional song, "Walay Angay", while her daughter, is playing outside the quarters. They were indifferent of each other for a while, but there is a sudden change in the mood of the two. The daughter of Mang Sixto finally notices the chords that her father was playing and along with the music is her father's very emotional presence. They were then engaged in a sudden conversation. The daughter interrogated her father of the about the sad song he was playing along with his guitars....   [tags: Short Story]

Free Essays
1037 words (3 pages)