The Impact of Contracted British Braille Code on The Spelling Proficiency among Pupils with Visual Impairments in Bilingual Setting

The Impact of Contracted British Braille Code on The Spelling Proficiency among Pupils with Visual Impairments in Bilingual Setting

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Introduction
Chronologically, before systematic production of the Basic Module for the Visually Impaired (KAiMaL) in 2010, pupils with visual impairments were learning braille codes according to the initiatives and flexibility of the subject teachers. Initially, students were learning Alphabetic Braille (Barclay, Herlich, & Sacks, 2010) followed with Contracted Braille based on formulae and procedures prescribed in the Handbook of British Braille Prime (1992).

According to D'Andrea (2009), braille code has developed as a methodology that represents the printed text for individuals with visual impairments. According to Kway (2012), braille code is the medium for literacy activities specifically for reading and writing. In addition, with the availability of braille literacy, the career prospects for those who are competent in braille literacy are brighter than those who have not mastered the skills (Koenig & Holbrook, 2000; Ryles 1996, 2000; Schroeder 1989.1996).


Bilingualism and Teaching English as the Second Language (ESL)
Bilingualism occurs among people who apply multiple languages in literacy activities. Bilingualism is not a teaching and learning methodology. In depth, it is an approach to enhance understanding of students in the context of learning and teaching by implementing foreign language scaffold with native language (Ovando, Combs, & Collier, 2003). In Malaysia, the policy of "Upholding Malay Language and Strengthening English" (MBMMBI, 2010), has gazetted learning English Language as a core subject, besides strengthening its dominance as the language of communication and other disciplines of knowledge. The Education Blue Print (PPPM, 2013-2025), has stated English to be a must-pass subject in the Malaysia Educati...


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...ESPT. Each phase steered in three cohorts of protecting instructional time (MMI) in school. A total of 127 words cited from the Integrated Secondary School Curriculum (KBSM)’s textbook and contracted words found in the handbook of British Braille Prime. The cited words were dictated progressively in verbal form. The overall mean score was then analyzed to detect the types of spelling errors found in their answer scripts. (See Table 2)


A total of 15 respondents were conditionally selected from a Special Education Secondary School for the Visually Impaired located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The rationale for the selection of the school as it is the only school in Malaysia that offers special education services, especially for individuals with visual impairments. Table 3 shows the frequency distribution of the sample by types of disability and level of education.




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