How Does Birth Order Affect Psychological and Social Development? Essay

How Does Birth Order Affect Psychological and Social Development? Essay

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How Does Birth Order Affect Psychological and Social Development?
Birth order and its effects on psychological and social development is a controversial topic that has been studied by many researchers (Skinner & Fox-Francoeur, 2010; Dunkel, Harbke, &Papini, 2009; Hartshorne, Salem-Hartshorne, & Hartshorne, 2009; Iacovou, 2007; Holmgren, Molander, Nilsson, 2006; Baer, Oldham, Hollingshead, &Jacobsohn, 2005; Rodgers, 2001; Sulloway, 1996; Kessler, 1991; Galton, 1874). Researchers have hypothesized that birth order affects many features of development such as personality (Skinner & Fox-Francoeur, 2010; Dunkel et al., 2009; Sulloway, 1996), intelligence (Iacovou, 2007; Holmgren et al., 2006; Rodgers, 2001; Kessler, 1991), creativity (Baer et al., 2005), and relationship formation (Hartshorne et al., 2009). Trying to find support that birth order can be used to predict future traits is common in studies of birth order effects, but because many factors other than birth order may affect personality, intellectual, creative, and relationship development (Santrock, 2011), it is difficult to study birth order effects. Confounding variables are common in birth order studies, which makes it a debatable topic (Hartshorne et al., 2009).
How Does Birth Order Affect Personality?
Personality is a consistent, yet flexible pattern of behavior and emotion that varies from person to person (Comer, 2010). An individuals personality, or temperament, is apparent from the time they are an infant, and continues to expand and develop throughout their life (Santrock, 2011). Personality may be influenced by a number of factors, such as genetics, learning, experience, or a combination of these (Comer, 2010). Birth order and its effects on personali...


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...1), 67-77. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1701_6
Rodgers, Joseph Lee. (2001). What causes birth order-intelligence patterns? The admixture hypothesis revived. American Psychologist, 56(6-7), 505-510. doi: 1O.1O37//O0O3-O66X.56.6-7.5O5
Sulloway, Frank J. (1996). Born to rebel: Birth order, family dynamics, and creative lives. New York, NY, US: Pantheon Books.
Kessler, Daniel. (1991). Birth order, family size, and achievement: Family structure and wage determination. Journal of Labor Economics, 9, 413-426.
Galton, Francis. (1874). English men of science. London: Macmillan.
Santrock, John W. (2011). Life-Span Development (13th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Comer, Ronald J. (2008). Abnormal Psychology (7th ed.) New York: Worth Publishers.
Kirton, Michael J. (2003). Adaption-innovation: In the context of diversity and change. New York, NY: Routledge. ID: 278229

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