Birth order and its effects on psychological and social development is a controversial topic that has been studied by many researchers (Skinner & Fox-Francoeur, 2010; Dunkel, Harbke, &Papini, 2009; Hartshorne, Salem-Hartshorne, & Hartshorne, 2009; Iacovou, 2007; Holmgren, Molander, Nilsson, 2006; Baer, Oldham, Hollingshead, &Jacobsohn, 2005; Rodgers, 2001; Sulloway, 1996; Kessler, 1991; Galton, 1874). Researchers have hypothesized that birth order affects many features of development such as personality (Skinner & Fox-Francoeur, 2010; Dunkel et al., 2009; Sulloway, 1996), intelligence (Iacovou, 2007; Holmgren et al., 2006; Rodgers, 2001; Kessler, 1991), creativity (Baer et al., 2005), and relationship formation (Hartshorne et al., 2009). Trying to find support that birth order can be used to predict future traits is common in studies of birth order effects, but because many factors other than birth order may affect personality, intellectual, creative, and relationship development (Santrock, 2011), it is difficult to study birth order effects. Confounding variables are common in birth order studies, which makes it a debatable topic (Hartshorne et al., 2009).
How Does Birth Order Affect Personality?
Personality is a consistent, yet flexible pattern of behavior and emotion that varies from person to person (Comer, 2010). An individuals personality, or temperament, is apparent from the time they are an infant, and continues to expand and develop throughout their life (Santrock, 2011). Personality may be influenced by a number of factors, such as genetics, learning, experience, or a combination of these (Comer, 2010). Birth order and its effects on personali...
... middle of paper ...
...1), 67-77. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1701_6
Rodgers, Joseph Lee. (2001). What causes birth order-intelligence patterns? The admixture hypothesis revived. American Psychologist, 56(6-7), 505-510. doi: 1O.1O37//O0O3-O66X.56.6-7.5O5
Sulloway, Frank J. (1996). Born to rebel: Birth order, family dynamics, and creative lives. New York, NY, US: Pantheon Books.
Kessler, Daniel. (1991). Birth order, family size, and achievement: Family structure and wage determination. Journal of Labor Economics, 9, 413-426.
Galton, Francis. (1874). English men of science. London: Macmillan.
Santrock, John W. (2011). Life-Span Development (13th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Comer, Ronald J. (2008). Abnormal Psychology (7th ed.) New York: Worth Publishers.
Kirton, Michael J. (2003). Adaption-innovation: In the context of diversity and change. New York, NY: Routledge. ID: 278229
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Question Two: It is essential for children to have healthy psychological development, and this can be affected by many situations. At home, children are affected by their family dynamics, various parenting styles, and sibling relationships. Their peer relationships, friendships, popularity, and even social networks also impact their psychological development. In order for them to have a strong psychological development they often need to have created healthy relationships with both members of their family and their peers (Siegler, DeLoache, & Eisenberg, 2011).... [tags: siblings, school, family, relationship]
1690 words (4.8 pages)
- The Extraordinary Development of Erin Robison Through out the years of studying human development there have been theories about the psychological stages or phases of development. Theorist saw that these psychological phases of development would then in turn affect a growing human’s physical, cognitive, and social development. Many theorist have become famous for their thoughts over the stages of human development, such as Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory, Erikson’s Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory, and Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory.... [tags: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development]
1211 words (3.5 pages)
- Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Anjelica Montesdeoca Social Work 2100 Weber State University Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson is recognized for suggesting the theory of psychological development. This theory focuses on human’s personality alteration throughout live by their biological development and societies demand. This theory consists of eight stages which are Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs.... [tags: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development]
2427 words (6.9 pages)
- Jackson is a 15-year-old boy who has developed phobias over the last few years, specifically to spiders, heights and germs. He and his parents are uncertain as to when they began and how. However, the fear is debilitating and prevents him from being able to function in his life. Jackson is now in middle adolescence where he is in the process of achieving his adult appearance and developing his sense of identity. He is soon transitioning into late adolescence where he will be transitioning into work, college and possibly independent living.... [tags: Fear, Phobia, Psychology, Anxiety]
1388 words (4 pages)
- Throughout our society, the social development of an individual has always been influenced by our interactions with others. It is through the process of socialization that we are able to adapt to become a member of society and develop our personality through social interactions. Many studies and research have shown that our personality is usually built upon internalizing our surroundings. One of the most prominent socialization agents that affect an individual is the relationship with their family.... [tags: Sociology, Socialization, Race, Social status]
719 words (2.1 pages)
- Psychological development is the development of a person’s emotional, intellectual, cognitive, and social capabilities and functions that they acquire throughout their lifetime. This starts from birth and carries on until death, but how does pregnancy affect the development stage. There are many myths that when women become pregnant their cognitive capabilities begin to decrease and the mother suffers from ‘baby brain’ or ‘placenta brain’. Scientists are interested in this and some wondered what role pregnancy plays in the increase or decrease of a woman’s cognitive function.... [tags: Psychology, Pregnancy]
635 words (1.8 pages)
- The aim of this assignment is to provide a critical analysis of theory in relation to psychological and emotional impact and its application to social work. I will look at the psychological and emotional impacts in relation to discriminatory and oppressive constructions in order to develop and demonstrate my understanding of social work within a multicultural diverse society. I have chosen internal working model and within this attachment theory as a psychological theory, widely used within social work.... [tags: human development]
2507 words (7.2 pages)
- Schizophrenia is a type of psychological disorder that affects a person’s brain and affects how they think and act on a daily bases. The disorder is known to be one of the most disabling and puzzling psychological disorder. People that suffer from this disorder have stated experiences that it is almost like a break from reality. It seems that schizophrenia in the past years has become a larger issue in our society. Moreover, people who develop the disorder seem to be disengaged from the common things in our lives such as working a job and having a relationship with others.... [tags: psychology, disorder, brain]
930 words (2.7 pages)
- Introduction Adolescence is the transition stage after childhood according to theories from researchers (Berk, 2010). Adolescents will encounter a number of distinctive developmental challenges which include coping with rapid changes in their bodies, managing their sexual importance, developing new affiliations, parent-child bonding and forecasting their academic and occupational expectations. Hence, this assignment will explore the physical and emotional developmental stages of human beings according to Erik Erikson’s theory, identification of two developmental issues in the given case study, the writer’s stage of development, and an overview of an article relating to the developmental st... [tags: Child Development ]
1369 words (3.9 pages)
- The Effect of Toys on a Person's Psychological Development You probably remember your favorite game from early childhood—many people do. The game most likely involved your favorite toy, perhaps a truck, or a doll. In fact, when you think about memories from your childhood, toys should be among the first things to come to mind to evoke a strong image of early childhood. Toys have been greatly underestimated by their possessors and especially by adults, dismissed as the "supporting role" in indoor or outdoor pastimes, which they literally are.... [tags: Papers]
1102 words (3.1 pages)