The subject of free will being an actual choice, or being pre-destined has thoroughly been reflected in the minds of philosophers, especially for the purpose of people’s logic. I will argue that both David Hume’s and Harry Frankfurt’s articles on the discussion of free will are cogent, because of compatibilism, in which a human has the ability to have correlation between free will and determinism, as well as, Hume would agree Frankfurt’s concept of second-order violations.
In David Hume’s article, Of Liberty and Necessity he describes, “Not only that the conjunction between motives and voluntary actions is a regular and uniform as that between the cause and effect in any part of nature; but also that this regular conjunction has been universally acknowledged among mankind” (Perry, Fischer, Bratman 410). Hume advocates that the causes and effects of nature correspond with the philosophical perception of free will. Likewise, he explains, “The constant conjunction of objects, and the consequent inference of the mind from one to another, and finding that these two circumstances are universally allowed to have a place in voluntary actions” (Perry, Fischer, Bratman 412). By constant conjunctions, Hume refers to two objects and the relation between them, while inference is the understanding of one object to another, both concepts are necessary in actions of human nature.
Particularly, Hume’s entire article is solely based on liberty, which is referring to free will, as well as, necessity which supports the belief of determinism. Hume deliberately states his anti-libertarian argument, due to the fact that libertarians hold the belief that determinism is false. Initially, Hume defines liberty as, ...
... middle of paper ...
...hat the only way a second-order violation can occur, is through free and responsible action caused by the agent himself, which is also an object Hume would consider. Lastly, Frankfurt states, “When a person identifies himself decisively with one of his first-order desires, this commitment ‘resounds’ throughout the potentially endless array of higher orders” (Perry, Fischer, Bratman 446). Hume would respond to this in a positive way, on behalf of the belief of each individual having a decision they are free to make on their own actions in both first-order desires, as well as, second-order violations.
Overall, Hume’s and Frankfurt’s visions on compatibilism as a whole, are both legitimate through the explanation that there is no incompatibility between free will and determinism and that there is diversity in the world specifically, because of the act of free will.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ... He comes up with something he calls “second order volitions”, which is essentially when a person wants their first order desire to be fulfilled according to their own self will (Frankfurt, 3). Frankfurt also brings upon different terms regarding his second order volitions such as first order desire, and second order desire, in order to help understand or portray his view on second order volitions (Frankfurt, 1-3). Reflection: Frankfurt’s stance on the problem of free will is interesting as he believes that there is a significant difference between the freedom of the action made by the person and the freedom of the will to do that action.... [tags: Free will, Determinism, Drug addiction]
1092 words (3.1 pages)
- ... Roderick M. Chisholm is a philosopher strongly believes that everyone has a free will, and can change their fates and lives. A.J. Ayer another hand disagrees with this and strongly believes that no one has free will and everything that happens in our lives is destine to happen to us. Both have very good points to why we do or do not have free will, let go further with the two philosopher beliefs. In the case of Roderick M. Chisholm, he argues that a man has the free choices to do as he pleases.... [tags: Free will, Causality, Libertarianism, Philosophy]
953 words (2.7 pages)
- Do people truly have free will. If a person has a choice between ice-cream and a orange and he or she chose the ice-cream, were he or she truly free in making that choice. The determinists believe that the person actually had no choice in the matter and their choice was predetermined by a series of cause and effects or natural laws. The concept of free will would imply that the person had the choice to pick the orange over the ice-cream but the person didn’t. It is through a series of complex causes that predetermined the effect of taking the ice-cream.... [tags: Free will, Causality, Determinism, Metaphysics]
2002 words (5.7 pages)
- Many people have the belief that they have free will, the freedom to choose to do what they wish, when they want. This notion of free will however is the subject of much debate throughout history about if humans have or do not have free will. Between these polar points there are also arguments that human beings can have free will in some situations such as that, humans have free will when they are presented a choice where they have a meaningful impact in choosing their response. As such, they may have choices taken out of their control by circumstance but will have little to no control over other choices when they are given.... [tags: Free will, Determinism, Philosophy of life]
1189 words (3.4 pages)
- “And he opened his mouth and taught them, saying: “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. “Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy. “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God. “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” (John 5:210, English Standard Version) One of the most important concepts in Dosto... [tags: Fyodor Dostoevsky]
2578 words (7.4 pages)
- ... Freedom exists in America, but at some points is taken advantage of by a certain race, or sex. They keep freedom to themselves, and hold the other people in their society out to dry. First it was racial discrimination of the Africans, then the gender conflicts of females, and today it seems to be a re-focus of racial prejudice against the middle Easterners. Americans always find new targets to point at, and they never truly seem to disappear. They are so deeply rooted into our culture, that we can even see them in popular culture, the language at the time, and even pastime activities.... [tags: american passport, racial prejudice]
1365 words (3.9 pages)
- In “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person”, Harry Frankfurt illustrates the concepts of freedom of will and freedom of action, but more importantly, Frankfurt has refined the compatibilism theory. Compatibilism allows the freedom of will to exist in the deterministic world. According to determinism theory, the future state of worlds is determined by some events in the distant past (E) and the laws of nature (L). More specifically, E refers to the history, such as experiences or states whereas L refers to scientific or physical law like gravity.... [tags: compatibilism theory, determinism]
1236 words (3.5 pages)
- Part One, The Thesis: Free-will, the ability one has to act without the constraint of necessity or fate. It the power a person has to act at one’s discretion. Do we really have the freedom to experience what we want, when we choose. Some would say yes while some others will say no, philosophers have argued about this topic and there hasn’t been any particular conclusion yet. It is the ability a person or animal has to choose his or her course of actions. Although most philosophers suppose that the concept of free-will is very closely connected to the concept of moral responsibility.... [tags: Free will, Determinism, Psychology, Metaphysics]
1141 words (3.3 pages)
- ... Annie had the choice to choose from the salad and fattening snack but still ended up in the same place. She could have even rejected both snacks and could still have ended up with having a future president child. The higher being would factor in as the person who presented her with the choice. And it all connects. Thomas Nagel describes it best when he says “…all combine to make a particular action in the circumstance inevitable.” The idea that the choice was already chosen even before you were born, like Annie choosing the fattening food, is called Determinism.... [tags: Free will, Choice, Destiny, Determinism]
1282 words (3.7 pages)
- ... For example, is there anybody can stay without thinking anything just for two minute. The answer is no. Nobody has control over their thought even for 30 seconds. The reason is clear no one has control over their thought or actions. I watched this guy on YouTube, his name is Leo. He believes that humans have no free will, and everything is determined by previous events and the laws of nature. Of course, he also believes that, as the determinist claims, humans are a part of nature. He said most people asked me the same questions.... [tags: Free will, Determinism, Mind, Thought]
1153 words (3.3 pages)