It is now a fact that most animal species that live in caves tend to lose their vision. This trait has been observed for several centuries. For instance, in 1768, Laurenti found the first described cave-adapted animal, Proteus anguinus, which is a salamander species (Juan, Guzik, Jaume, & Cooper, 2010). It was blind and according to most tales, it was thought to be the larval phase of a dragon. This amphibian’s preliminary eye development is normal. However, development of its eyes slows down with time; the lens undergoes rigorous lytic processes and the cornea involutes, making the eye to be strongly sunken and reduced.
Amblyopsis spelaea, the first cavefish species to be described in 1842, was also found to be blind (Juan, Guzik, Jaume, & Cooper, 2010). Today, biologists are carrying out numerous investigations on the Astyanax cavefish species, which have eye degenerative traits. The degree of functi...
... middle of paper ...
...’s ‘wrecks of ancient life’ in the molecular era. Molecular Ecology, 19, 3865-3880.
Meng, F., Braasch, I., Phillips, J. B., Lin, X., Titus, T., Zhang, C., & Postlethwait, J. H. (2013). Evolution of the eye transcriptome under constant darkness in Sinocyclocheilus cavefish. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 10. Retrieved from http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/05/21/molbev.mst079.full
Rétaux, S., & Casane, D. (2013). Evolution of eye development in the darkness of caves: adaptation, drift, or both. Evo Devo. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/2041-9139-4-26.pdf
Yoshizawa, M., Yamamoto, Y., O'Quin, K. E., & Jeffery, W. R. (2012). Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish. BMC Biology, 10. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/108
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ee, searching for a ‘perfect’ love has never mattered to me. It’s never been about someone who would match this silly list of criteria or be exactly who I always dreamed of. I haven’t spent my life wishing for a prince or a man to save me. I haven’t hoped that I’d find this ideal man who could have all the answers and never leave me wondering. I don’t want perfect, I just want you. You, with your brokenness and bad habits. You, with the tendency to raise your voice and your strong, calloused hands.... [tags: Regression analysis, Linear regression]
1972 words (5.6 pages)
- Plato's The Allegory of the Cave In Plato’s “The Allegory of the Cave,” he suggests that there are two different forms of vision, a “mind’s eye” and a “bodily eye.” The “bodily eye” is a metaphor for the senses. While inside the cave, the prisoners function only with this eye. The “mind’s eye” is a higher level of thinking, and is mobilized only when the prisoner is released into the outside world. This eye does not exist within the cave; it only exists in the real, perfect world. The “bodily eye” relies on sensory perceptions about the world in order to determine what is reality.... [tags: Plato Allegory Cave Essays]
811 words (2.3 pages)
- There has been a lot of forethought that when into whether or not Neanderthals knew or understood the idea of burying the dead. They were seen as too primitive and culturally inept to bury their dead. This had been the same thought process until recent finding had uncovered, literally what was believed to be impossible. A cave system known as La Chappele-aux Saints located in France revealed a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal that been presumably buried. The individual had been carefully placed in a shallow grave with rocks piled up around them.... [tags: Human, Neanderthal, Pleistocene, Cave]
1764 words (5 pages)
- To be more specific, the regression coefficient for education shows that a percent increase in years of education would increase the individual income by 85.38. The regression coefficient for age indicates that a one year increase in age increases individual income by ¥ 177.62 ($25.82). The regression coefficient for health indicates that a one level increase in health condition decreases individual income by ¥ 305.63 ($44.43). The regression coefficient for “Informal” shows that working for informal sectors decreases individual income by ¥ 1726.72 ($251), compared to those who work for formal sectors.... [tags: Regression analysis, Least squares, Econometrics]
1661 words (4.7 pages)
- The cave fish is a curious object of study. One of which has many scientist rushing to discover exactly why this fish developed that cannot see. The cave fish live in dark caves and have evolved to life without vision. Both Lamarck and Darwin had excellent theories about evolution. Darwin believed that natural selection had the biggest impact on the evolution of a species. Darwin theorized each population had variations, these variations caused the individual to either have a greater or lesser chance of survival.... [tags: Natural selection, Evolution, Eye, Genetics]
753 words (2.2 pages)
- Another common method for selecting variables for a regression model is to look at the univariate relation between each variable and the response, culling only those variables significant for entry into the subsequent regression analysis. It is important to note that this is really nothing more than a variant of automated selection, increasing the probability of overfitting, as well as other problems. An example that Babyak (2004) gives is that variables that are isolated may act differently when compared to variables used simultaneously with 1 or more other variables.... [tags: Statistics, Regression analysis]
720 words (2.1 pages)
- The Allegory of the Cave by Plato "The Allegory of the Cave," by Plato, explains that people experience emotional and intellectual revelations throughout different stages in their lives. This excerpt, from his dialogue The Republic, is a conversation between a philosopher and his pupil. The argument made by this philosopher has been interpreted thousands of times across the world. My own interpretation of this allegory is simple enough as Plato expresses his thoughts as separate stages. The stages, very much like life, are represented by growing realizations and newfound "pains." Therefore, each stage in "The Allegory of the Cave" reveals the relation between the growth of the mind an... [tags: Plato Allegory Cave Philosophy Essays]
1122 words (3.2 pages)
- Regression in psychology is considered to be a defense mechanism that leads the ego to revert back to the earlier stage of development rather than making an effort to handle unacceptable stimuli in a mature and adult manner.Regression examples in psychology can be seen in our day to day life. For instance when you are under a lot of stress from everyday life you may regress by going to your room and wrapping up in a security blankets or watching a cartoon to make the stress go away for the moment.... [tags: defense mechanisms, development]
1071 words (3.1 pages)
- Introduction The Major League Baseball (MLB) organization is a group of baseball teams that have made it to the Major League. The Major League Baseball data set provides the 2005 salaries of multiple Major League Baseball (MLB) teams as well as individual salaries of players within 30 teams (Lind, Marchal & Wathen, 2008). The MLB data set gives information such as batting averages, wins, salaries, home runs, errors, etc (Lind, Marchal & Wathen, 2008). Two specific teams stand out of the information when looking at their stats; St.... [tags: Statistics, Regression Paper]
943 words (2.7 pages)
- Introduction Our regression analysis was done on OMNITRANS fuel consumption. This has been an ongoing issue for OMNITRANS where there seems to be an inconsistency with there CNG fuel consumption. There continues to be variance in what is consumed each day compared to the amount of miles driven. This issue is very important to OMNITRANS because it makes it very difficult to plan for future use with the CNG industry. OMNITRANS wants to have a consistency with CNG use so they can plan for budgeting purposes and new contracts that are connected with the CNG usage.... [tags: Statistics Regression Analysis]
1684 words (4.8 pages)