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To begin with, the freedom of trade usually means lack of the high export and import duties, and also not monetary restrictions on trade, for example, quotas of import of certain goods and subsidies for local producers of certain goods. Supporters of free trade are Liberal parties and currents; many left-wing parties and movements concern to opponents (socialists and communists), defenders of human rights and environment, and also labor unions.
The mercantilism which has arisen in Europe in the XVI century was one of early theories of trade. In the XVIII century the protectionism was subjected to sharp criticism in Adam Smith's works which doctrine can be considered as a theoretical basis of free trade. In the XIX century Smith's views have fuller development in David Ricardo's works.
The main message of development of "free trade" was the need which has arisen in the XVIII century of sale of the excess capital imported to economy the developed countries (England, France, further the USA) for the purpose of avoidance of depreciation of money, inflation, and also for export of the made goods to the participating countries and colonies.
After the release in 1776 of Adam Smith's " Wealth of Nations " theory of free trade in a matter of decades unequivocally won the " battle of ideas " Smith showed that free trade and the international division of labor which it generates benefits all participants in this process. Thus, for the approval of free trade was necessary to win many more fierce battles.
Among the major obstacles to free trade, left in the early 19th century were the laws of navigation and Corn Laws ,which were in force since 1670, established a protective tariff on imported grain to maintain high domestic prices as an ince...

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...ceptions by the members of one party only, that circumstance is to be regarded with satisfaction in the interests of that party, but with the hope that others may gradually be brought within their influence.
In addition to the force of self-interest, the cogency of ideas or concepts such as the gains from standard static gains from free trade, including economies of scale as free trade, and the institutional changes that allowed repeal to finally take.
Schonhardt-Bailey argues that the causes of transition to free trade are three i-words - interests, ideas and institutions. Export sector became more diversified in 1830-1846 in terms of drawn to quantitative explanations for social events, and suggest that a standard concentration indices, and that economic interests as measured by similar methodology may be applied to other historically interesting events.

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