The Parliament, albeit limited in power, acquired de facto power in previous centuries, making them a significant group in the kingdoms. Due to their power, the king could only adjust taxations with their approval. During the Thirty Years War, Charles I desired to intervene, which would require heavy taxation in order to make up for foreign expenditure. His decision to appoint an unpopular Duke as a commander of the English army led to further hostility and criticism from the Parliament, that were deemed as the voice of a society1. In backlash, Charles I dissolved the Parliament and assembled another, which unfortunately for him, created the Petition of Rights that he was forced to sign2.
By the Glorious Revolution of the 17th century, England was already miles ahead of their European brethren. William of Orange and his wife, Mary, took over the English throne after King James fled to France on the heels of his failed attempts to rul... ... middle of paper ... ...to govern their local towns and were therefore motivated to pay taxes that eventually led to the strong military force and navy that were steadily building due to economic prosperity. Sir Robert Walpole is thought of the first prime minister of Great Britain and while he was in power “the English state combined considerable military power with both religious and political liberty” (The Western Heritage p 381) because he allowed his opposition to openly criticize him and his policies. Works Cited Glorious Revolution." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Charles won many small battles during the English Civil war, but as the war dragged on, many factors became his disadvantage. One important factor was that Parliament allied itself with Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans. From then on, Parliament and Cromwell won two major battles, the Battle of Naseby and Marston Moor. (Hill, p. 95) Ideologically, Cromwell’s New Model Army was more motivated than the King’s army. Defeat against Scotland caused the unwillingness of the King’s army to fight, the “first and most necessary prelude to revolution” (L. Stone, p. 135).
People began to revere wisdom over instincts in the time of the Enlightenment. 2. The American Revolution was affected by the Enlightenment, especially by the ideas of John Locke. King George III took away the colonists rights, and they realized that they were not being treated right, even though the people in England were given the rights constituted by the new Enlightenment ideas. While the people living in Great Britain were subjects of the king, the colonists were not treated as such, and were given many unfair taxes, all without government representation in England.
This became known as the Revolution on 1830 and caused Charles to flee to England. Moderate liberals now formed a constitutional monarchy and Louis Philippe was chosen as the new king. By dressing and acting like a normal citizen, Louis Philippe gained popularity among the middle class citizens. Many French people referred to him as the “citizen king.” Louis Philippe increased the number of wealthy citizens that could vote, limited the freedom of the press, and began to silence those who opposed him. These actions gradually made him seem less like a citizen and more like a king.
The royalists and King Charles fought the parliamentarians, but the parliamentarians won. When the parliamentarians won they held the trial of King Charles 1, the exile of his son, Charles II; and the replacement of English monarchy with, at first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53) and then the Protectorate (1653–59) under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the war established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, but it was not upheld and a later king tried to rule without parliament again, which brought about the Bloodless revolution. The bloodless revolution was a war between the Catholic King of England and his son in law who was a protestant.
France was subjected to various civil wars and wars of religion, and the future king, Louis XIV, witnessing this period of unrest, vowed to impleme... ... middle of paper ... ...V had achieved, and the English people feared their religious freedom was being jeopardized. These circumstances would then lead to England’s “Glorious Revolution,” which would take on the unpopular monarchy and defeat it, thereby putting William and Mary in the English throne. France and England underwent very different changes during the seventeenth century. While France transformed from an instability, war-torn country to a united, prosperous nation, England did just the opposite. France’s success can be largely attributed to Louis XIV long reign, and England’s decline was caused by a series of short rules by vastly different rulers.
In both the English and French Revolutions the monarch was the establishment being revolted against. In the English revolution it was more of the Parliament rebelling against the monarchy whereas in the French Revolution the peasants were the strongest and most motivated factors for change. In both revolutions the legislative body issued some form of a declaration for basic human rights. In England, however, their Bill of Rights was issued at the end of the revolution, while France’s Declaration of the Rights of Man was issued at the beginning of the revolution. Religion was in issue at different times in both the English and French Revolutions.
Early in the Development of Massachusetts and the other New England colonies, the government of England had paid little attention to the colonies due to civil strife back at home. This neglect gave the colonies a somewhat independent feel. When Charles II came back to power in England, he decided to take a more active role in the English colonies of North America and stop the defiance of royal rule that was taking place. His first action was to give a charter to both Rhode Island and Connecticut, squatter settlements, which was a slap in the face to the colony of Massachusetts, which was, according to Charles II, ignoring royal rule. In 1684, as a show of power, Charles II revoked the charter of Massachusetts.
In the eyes of many people Strafford was seen to be a tyrant and he was also accused of cheating and squeezing taxes. People thought that the King would have ruled better without him. Another choice that the King made was appointing Laud to be the new Archbishop of Canterbury. Laud was a Catholic while most MPs and the King were either Protestants or Puritans. According to some historians the stages that led to a civil war commenced in 1625 when king Charles I married an unpopular queen, Henrietta Maria, who was a Catholic.