However, there is another case which is Baby Fae. In this case doctors transplanted a baboon hearth into the baby and he survived just four w... ... middle of paper ... ...ticle some diseases rooted in animals such as HIV, Ebola, and Hepatitis B Therefore, xenotransplantation may cause new and dangerous diseases which are undiscovered. In addition, the most significant problem is the risk of spreading infectious illnesses to the broader population. For this reason, according to Mark J. Hanson xenotransplantation represents a possible danger to the communal well-being even though it supplies a few advantage to individual patients. Moreover, according to Olakanmi and Purdy pigs harbor a diversity of identified and unidentified bacteria and viruses and also according to Mark J. Hanson article pigs are often used as a source for heart valves and sometimes for skin transplant.
With all of these new advancements, how has the face of animal testing changed today? Many people may argue that animal testing is right and is the only way we can find cures for diseases and test products used for humans. Helen Pycroft has said “Without the ability to use animals in their research, scientists' efforts would be massively hampered, not only in the direct development of new treatments, but also in the fundamental research which underpins all biomedical knowledge.” (Pycroft). Although animal testing has resulted in many medical advancements, cures, and knowledge millions of animals are harmed each year. 92 out of 100 tests done on animals then fail in humans.
Not only do we have other options for these tests, but animals testing has actually been proven to be ineffective. Companies claim that this sort of cruelty will benefit the human population by testing the “safety” of the products, as they have been for hundreds of years and although this may have been helpful in the past, scientists have discovered otherwise. “While funding for animal experimentation and the number of animals tested on continues to increase, the United States still ranks 49th in the world in life expectancy and second worst in infant mortality in the developed world” (“Animal Testing Is”). This evidence shows that while we still continue to support and spend money on animal testing, it is not working as well as we thought.Essentially we are torturing the animals for a negative outcome, both for the human and the animal. The Food and Drug Administration reports that “92 out of every 100 drugs that pass animal tests fail in humans” (“Top Five Reasons”).
Without the help of data received from animal tests many of our vaccinations would not exist. But despite all of the amazing advances in medicine we have achieved through animal research, animal research is still science, and like all science there are many variables. The Food and Drug Administration has reported that 92 out of every 100 drugs that pass animal tests fail in humans ("Stop Animal Testing: Replace). The 1950s the sleeping pill thalidomide, which was tested on animals prior to its commercial release, caused 10,000 babies to be born with severe deformities ("Should Animals Be Used"). Not only do drug tests have questionable results, but dermatology tests do as well.
Today, allotransplantation faces a significant challenge because the need for this procedure far exceeds the availability of donor organs. Each day, approximately 10 Americans breathe their last breath waiting for organs to become available. To meet this scarcity of human organs, doctors along with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are investigating an alternative to allotransplantation, xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation, (xeno) is a greek word meaning “stranger”, involves transplanting or grafting of animal organs, tissues, or cells to replace failing organs or to treat disease in humans. These transplanted or grafted organ, tissue, or cell is called a xenotransplant or xenograft.
Since 1970, more than 500,000 frozen embryos are stored with 20,000 embryos extra each year and most of them will not be used (Clark, 2009, p. 2). For some people, destroying these embryos constitutes an act of murder because t... ... middle of paper ... ... to spontaneous pregnancy loss compare to 2.5 percent of pregnancy loss following twin reduction (Mcclimans, 2009, p. 295-303). It is also important to mention that in vitro fertilization cycle is so expensive and few heath insurances covert it. Therefore, limiting a number of embryo transfers can be a problem to those participants whose desire are to have more than one child but do not have enough money to sponsor each cycle. A study published in New England journal of medicine in 2002 found that the rate of multiple pregnancies with triplets or more increase in states where in vitro fertilization procedure is not covered (RESOLVE, 2013).
Prior to the human trial, Batshaw and Wilson had done experiment on animals to ensure the safety. Over 20 experiments have been done on mice but only 12 of them survived at last (Sophia, M. and Kolehmainen, J.D., 2000). More seriously, complicating diseases, which can be more dangerous than genetic diseases, might set in during the treatment period. In December 200... ... middle of paper ... ...s of gene therapy is that the mortality rate is very high. This is because Immune system may attack cells and cells may attack vital organs.
These tests are done only to protect companies from consumer lawsuits. Although it’s not quite true, Humans and animals don’t always react in the same way to drugs. In the UK an estimated 10,000 people are killed or severely disabled every year by unexpected reactions to drugs, all these drugs have passed animal tests. Animal testing is often unpredictable in how products will work on people. Some estimates say up to 92 percent of tests passed on animals failed when tried on humans (Procon.org, 2014, page 1).
Xenotransplantation Physicians today are faced with a growing list of patients awaiting transplants for organs that have failed, but there are not enough donors to meet these needs. Countries all over the world have a “human organ shortage” and the waiting lists for organ transplants only seem to grow longer (Melo 427). In the United States 62,000 patients needed a kidney, liver, or pancreatic transplant in the year 2001. Xenotransplantation, which refers to the transplantation of organs, cells, or tissues from animal species into human beings, has been heralded as a promising technology that will help us save more lives and lessen the dire shortage of transplantable organs. Organs from pigs, goats, monkeys, chimpanzees, and baboons have been used in xenotransplant experiments conducted so far.
Alongside this is the fact that many reasons exist on why failures are the majority and not the minority.” Ex) ■T... ... middle of paper ... ...gate mothers endure an additional surgery to deliver the baby……Animal life is devalued…….and it is unclear what happens to cloned animals who fail to meet expectations….”(Factsheet on Animal Cloning, Humane Society) Over 10 billion animals are birthed for the sole purpose of feeding us with their milk, meat and eggs. On top of this countless, thousands more lives will be lost in the name of “government sanctioned cloning”(Gowri Koneswaran) If at least 1 million animals are slaughtered every hour, why do we need to kill more animals for food? Put yourself in their place. Injected multiple times a day, put through surgical procedure after surgical procedure, raised in a small, sterile cage, harvested for the organs someone else wants, but unable to speak for yourself. And abused when you failed their expectations.