The books intent is to challenge written histories and to reinterpret early Mi’kmaq-French relations, particularly religious history among the Mi’kmaq. Using both Mi’kmaq and Euro history/knowledge to do so. Through the revitalization of Mi’kmaq histories, culture, and spirituality the text both bridges non-Aboriginal peoples to new understandings of Canadian history, as well as bridging Mi’kmaq youth to their elders and culture (11).
This paper addresses the results of interviews, observations, and research of life in the Ottawa tribe, how they see themselves and others in society and in the tribe. I mainly focused on The Little River Band of Ottawa Indian tribe. I researched their languages, pecking order, and interviewed to discover the rituals, and traditions that they believe in. In this essay I revealed how they see themselves in society. How they see other people, how they see each other, what their values were, what a typical day was etc. I initially suspected that I would have got different responses from these questions but in reality the results in the questions were almost completely the same. I studied this topic because mostly all the people that are close to me are associated in the Ottawa tribe. I additionally love the Native American culture, I feel it is beautiful and has a free concept.
Winona Wheeler’s essay, “Cree Intellectual Traditions in History” analyzes the oral history of First Nations Elders. She specifically questions the identities of the Elders telling their story and how they have attained the stories that they are telling. Wheeler’s thesis is that the Elders are not mere storages of knowledge, they are humans. And as the days go on, few of them remain which makes it even more relevant to take in what they have and pass it on to the newer generations.
Fur trading started between the Europeans along with the Aboriginals when the most valuable beaver pelts was a substituted for metal and clothing goods such as iron knives and axis, copper kettles, blankets and trinkets. The beaver pelts were well desired by the Europeans for the reason that using this fur for headgear provided an elegant way to keep dry. However these pelts were for fashion, as men and women could be instantly noted within the social hierarchy by according to their beaver hats. It was so valuable that the sand on the floor was filtered to save every hair that has fallen off. For the Europeans, captivating advantages of the rich furs from the Indians in the New World was a major factor in generating handsome profits, and there is no other pelt exchanging business enterprise like the Hudson's Bay Company. It is the oldest venture of Canada and it inspired many by its domination in the fur trading industry during its early years. They equipped their own armies, minted its own coins and even issued its own medals. The company had controlled fully one-third of present-day Canadian territory and were thought by many as a kingdom by itself in the fur industry. They had trading posts from the very north Arctic Ocean to Hawaii and as far south as San Francisco. HBC's revenue didn't generate simply from this one way trade in furs to Europe; it also consists of large amounts of European goods to North America. These goods incorporated many other products that local people cannot construct such as gunpowder, bullets, weapons, tobacco, kettles, pots, beads, fishing hooks, needles, scissors, and so much more. The Hudson's Bay Company showed a great measure of success since its formation, but it didn't come without s...
Thompson, John Herd, and Mark Paul Richard. "Canadian History in North American Context." In Canadian studies in the new millennium. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008. 37-64.
In the “Women in between”: Indian Women in fur Trade Society in Western Canada, historical paper by Sylvia Van Kirk a University of Toronto professor of History and Women’s studies. This article is about Indian women who were in between the Hudson's Bay and St. Lawrence-Great Lake men and the Europeans, the roles women played during the fur trade, the union between native and mixed-blood women with the traders and the advantages the traders had from the native and mixed-blood women.
The article “The consumption of Native Americans in the Eighteenth Century: Lessons from York Factory, Hudson Bay” by Ann M. Carlos and Frank D. Lewis aims at studying the economics behind the trade patterns of exchange of furs for European goods between native Indians and European manufacturers. The article studies the shift in the consumption patterns and how consumer buying behavior developed during the period. It states that the increased consumption of European goods was not a mere function of price by a complex function of determinants of demand which encouraged natives to forego leisure and produce more fur to buy more goods. The article examines the trade pattern in terms of percentage share of different kind of goods in the overall buying by natives and also states that even in that era the accounting system was very developed as is evident from the fact that the company used MB as a unit of price. In the section on “Gift-giving ad
The Canadian Fur Trade began when the French, new to the land, offered the natives of the land French goods such as kettles, knives, and other gifts, to create friendships; the natives gave the French fur pelts in exchange (Barbour 4). The fur trade “fostered the interchange of knowledge, technology, and material culture,” created a solid foundation for military alliances, and helped form new cultures and cultural identities (Foran 2). It was a way for the people of New France to keep alliances with the Aboriginal people against their common southern enemies, the British (Foran 22). The fur trade was the start of Canada and the life for people there, especially voyageurs. The fur trade shaped the economic, political, and social aspects of
The fur trade was one of the most notable events in Canadian history. Although it seems both the French and the First Nations benefited equally from the fur trade, I believe that the French were benefited more from the fur trade. In 1629, the Jesuits travelled to Quendake and had decided to handle the Récollets’ work. The first European settlement, Sainte-Marie, was used for missionary work and according to the textbook, “It would be the centre of thriving Ouendat.” They decided, they would try to convince the Ouendats to convert to Catholicism. However, their mission went unsuccessfully as only a few Ouendats had accepted this offer. After their unsuccessful mission, they decided to create many different settlements throughout New France.
In the earliest years, the role of women was not evident, only men were considered as main participants. However, when fur trade was shifted to native villages, at that time crucial role of women was accounted. Undoubtedly, women played an important role in fur trade industry. Because of the significant contribution of women Without women fur trade was nearly impossible. Because they did a plenty of unpaid work to support their men in the fur trade. Beside doing household chores and raising children, they dedicate their more time to supply essential tools and resources to the fur trade industry. They also helped in navigation and translation.
The fur trade has diminished, and in many states, it is now illegal to trap and kill animals for their fur. It is a very controversial issue today, but many of our ancestors trapped and traded furs to make a living. Today, instead of hunting and trapping, many animals are raised on farms then their pelts are harvested. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, complaining that animals are brutally killed. Synthetic fur imitations are now often used. The beaver pelt trade in the 1700’s was responsible for the development of Canada. The abundance of beaver in the Rupert Area, which is around the Great Lakes, was the perfect area to set up the beaver trade. European traders worked with aboriginal people to trade their
In failing to address a female perspective only half of the story is being told. There are many customs that only a woman will know, and understand the full extent of. This is my main critique of Dion’s work in that if the other side was acknowledged, it would have not only strengthened the paper, but given the reader an enhanced understanding of what it truly means to be a Cree woman. I will give Dion credit for not attempting to take on that perspective himself as it is not appropriate to do so for obvious reasons. Mandelbaum on the other hand highlights the role women played in the community accurately depicting both the unfavourable, and postive aspects of