Philosophers focus on many issues, among them; Epistemology, Metaphysics, Logic, Aesthetics, Ethics, and Political Philosophy. Epistemology is the study of knowledge. It is concerned with how knowledge is acquired, what obstacles are faced in the pursuit of knowledge and the limits on what can be known. It differentiates between rational and empirical knowledge. Metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, it focuses on fundamental existential questions about being and meaning.
Metaphysics, Epistemology, Logic, Ethics, Politics, and Aesthetics. Metaphysics is the nature reality of the universe. Epistemology is the study of knowledge and how we humans acquire it. Logic is how to develop valid arguments. Ethics is the study of how people should live if they are right or wrong.
On the one hand, objects of this type emphasis homo sapien as essences capable of constructing such objects, which in turn assumes the ability of human consciousness to make synthetic acts. On the basis of philosophy as metaphysics, an original approach is offered which divides the history of philosophy into periods as well as providing analysis of different philosophical systems. Feature of philosophical activity, as against a science, is the work with special, not physical objects — the totalities, which are constituted by the philosopher. One of such objects is the world, and, in this sense, we often say, that philosophy is a wel-tanschauung (world-outlook) . Certainly, the world as some set of things can be studied by physics (sciences in a broad sense), but in this case a researcher can miss the point that the world is a totality, not just a simple set of things.
Philosophy is the study of examining and thinking about questionable ethical problems and/or generally accepted certainties. Philosophy aims at knowledge that combines a variety of academic fields as well as convictions, prejudices and beliefs. What is Russell’s essay about? Present Russell’s position in your own words. Bertrand Russell’s essay addresses many issues concerning philosophy.
II Philosophical ethics is the integration of metaethics and normative ethics?the attempt to come to an integrated understanding of both. Given our current perspective, how can we view the philosophical ethics of Mill, Kant, Aristotle, Nietzsche, and the ethics of care? III For Mill, the question is what is the relation between his (metaethical) empirical naturalism and his (normative) qualitatively hedonist value theory and his utilitarian moral theory? One place we can see Mill?s empiricism is his treatment, in Chapter III, of the question of why the principle of utility is ?binding?, how it can generate a moral obligation. Compare Mill?s treatment of this question with Kant?s treatment of the question of why the CI is binding in Chapter III of the Groundwork.
Aristole 384-322 b.c.e. Aristotle conceptualized the branches of philosophy and contributed to the theories in logic, metaphysics, ethics and political philosophy (book 237). Aristotle’s teleological ethics: the reason for being. Aristotle focused on the peoples actions whether good or bad, as well as their character, not there right or wrong actions. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) branches of philosophy included contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and aesthetics.
Although these problems exist, through using philosophy, Plato offers intellectual insight on how to gain truth. Because of the distinction between mythology and philosophy, mankind can use both when exploring fundamental life questions. An essential to fully understanding fundamental life questions is to know both how and why a situation occurs, which can be discovered through combining mythology and
Rather, philosophy's catalytic and integrative role in human cognition should be stressed. Anthropological interests on the part of philosophers can be explained on different levels. Since thinking in general is reflective, philosophical thinkers must naturally be interested in understanding the nature of humans, which they themselves are, including the nature of their own thinking. But non-philosophical theorists can also be reflective enough to seek an understanding of human nature and the nature of their characteristic thinking. On a deeper level, with their realization that cognitive functions including philosophical thinking are characteristically human, philosophers may come to reflect upon how such functions are conditioned by human conditions.
The ‘historical signs’ of such moral purposiveness provide moral orientation through the conflicting claims that arise within and between complex and historically evolving human communities. I explore the role of disinterested judgement in providing this orientation and in marking the moral disposition of the species. In contrast with his major ethical works, Kant’s writings on history are replete with the theme of the social character of moral development and the interdependence of individual and community. Assuming for the moment that in some fundamental sense, moral decision making is an individual matter, how does the social context of human life affect morality? In particular what is the significance of the fact that our social structures are constituted over time?