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The APOE ε4 allele is the disease’s most prevalent allele. The function of this gene is to regulate cholesterol and triglyceride metabolisms. This shows it is not only coincidental that high cholesterol and diabetes lead to late-onset Alzheimer’s. The APOE ε4 allele was tested and discovered to be so dangerous in 1993. Since, many more studies have been completed on this allele and it has been known to be the main cause of Alzheimer’s disease.
Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive condition where the neurons degenerate in the brain, while the brain substance shrinks in volume. Alzheimer’s is also the number one cause of dementia. When it was first noticed, Alzheimer’s was thought to be a pre-senile disease, but now it is known to be responsible for seventy-five percent of the dementia cases in people over sixty-five years of age. Alzheimer’s disease usually causes several years of personal and intellectual decline until death. Because there is an increasing number of elderly citizens in the United States, research into the causes and possible cures for the disease is on the rise (1).
Statement on Use of Apolipoprotein E Testing for Alzheimer's Disease. (1996).American College of Medical Genetics/American Society of Human Genetics Working Group on ApoE and Alzheimer's Disease.Internet.http:www.faseb.org/genetics/asng/policy/pot
The emergence of delusional companions in Alzheimer’s Disease: An unusual misidentification syndrome. Sheonberg, B. S., Kokmen, E., & Okazaki, H. (1987). In Venneri, A., Turnball, O. V., & Sala, S. D. (1996). The Taxonomic Perspective: The Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Dementia. Revue Europé de Psychologie Appliquée, 3rd trimester.
Neurology 77(13):1276-1282. Walker, J., Batterham, P., Christensen, H., et al. 2012. Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms-the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition 95(1):194-203.
This type of cancer predisposition affects 1 in every 10000 people America, Britain, and Japan, making it a relatively common malady (Ao, 140). Schizophrenia has been shown to run in families; even adopted children of schizophrenic parents are ten times more likely to develop schizophrenia, regardless of whether or not... ... middle of paper ... ...-Stewart, Edward J. Roy, and Christopher D. Wickens, eds. Psychology, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997. The Benefits of Genetic Engineering: http://web.syr.edu/~jmschroe/wrt205/screen2.html.
Most investigations using transgenic animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have reported a decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis (Demars et al., 2010, Hamilton et al., 2010, Naumann et al., 2010). Currently, is considered that the impairment in neurogenesis can be an important factor during the onset and progression of AD. Most authors consider hippocampal neurogenesis necessary to maintain hippocampal cognitive abilities, therefore, the damage in the proliferative system has to be functionally detrimental (See references in Mu and Gage, 2011). Most animal models with the familial type mutations that cause AD show that when toxic amyloid beta peptides (Aβ42) are present, hippocampal neurogenesis decreases. In addition, we know that knocking out of presenilin-1 in the hippocampus impairs proliferation.