Art has evolved and regenerated itself many times during our human existence. These differences are defined through changes in styles under various theories. During the nineteenth and early twentieth century, a style known as Expressionism became popular. During this movement the artists were trying to use their artwork as a tool of expression toward life. It was mainly dominant in the nonrepresentational arts, such as abstract visual arts and music. It also was probably one of the most difficult movements to understand because the whole point of the piece lay within the artist. Not only was it a movement, it defined the act of art as a whole. From the beginning of time, each work of art, excluding replicas, show a way of expressing one's self. Every artist puts a piece of his or herself into their artwork. Who really is to determine what that work of art was meant to express?
One might ask, "Since most artwork is used as a way for an artist to express him or herself, what makes this expression period anything special?" On the general level "Expressionistic art, whether literature, painting, music, or cinema, often involves intense psychic disturbance and distortion in the perspective adopted by the artwork." "It is remote from the objective or realistic portrayals of the world, as well as from the happier emotions." To bring a more defined meaning to the overall theory of expressionism, two philosophers play a large role. The first notarized expressionistic philosopher was the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy who was followed by his counterpart R.G. Collingwood: a twentieth-century English philosopher. Together they hold the two best known expositions of the expression theory.
What make these two analyzers important is not what they agreed on, but rather on how they contrasted. They both conclude that during the expression theory, the main concern was to express emotion. The one question that draws the two apart is "What does it mean to express an emotion?" They attempt to conclude this question, by providing the answers to a few others. What the nature of art is? Why we make and appreciate art? Why the arts are so valuable?
The best way to go about describing their thoughts is to state one of the thinkers discoveries followed by a thorough investigation of the second's, beginning with Leo Tolstoy. He begins his arg...
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...correspondent real life events. "If the music does not evoke a real emotional response in a listener, according to this school of thought, this response should be considered inappropriate."
No matter whose view you take they all have their faults. Making a theory on art is not the same as making a theory in science. With science you have guidelines that can be proven. There are very few guidelines in art that can be backed up by fact. The ideal of defining a theory in art is based on emotions as well. Both Tolstoy and Collingwood are using their emotions in order to judge other emotions. If I were forced to pick a philosopher to side with, I would probably lean toward Collingwood, since he leaves more area for variety. He places more of the wealth of the emotional art within the artist themselves rather than a third party. If it were totally up to me I would leave the decision on whether a work is good or not between the artist and whomever was viewing it at that time. What I might think as a good piece of work and what might evoke emotions in me might not do the same for another who might consider themselves experts, but does that really make my opinion less valuable?
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...reas the various false views of language can be stated or lend themselves to assertion, the true view is something that has to be seen - it remains a view."(33) And so analogously, in aesthetics the true view is something that has to be seen, and so any analysis of the British Avant-Garde or any other movement ultimately must be seen. And so we might argue that this is one reason why the empirical or practice in aesthetics is so important because in order to see the true view in aesthetics or the true view with regard to particular works, we must actually see or hear aesthetic objects. We might emphasize Wittgenstein¡¦s advise that we must not theorize as to how a word functions or analogously as to how an art work functions, but to look at its use and learn from that, that we need to look at particular art objects in order to productively theorize about art.(34)
The attempt to set up a standard for assessing the merit of works of art, based upon contingent connections between these works and the sentiments (feelings of pleasure or displeasure) of spectators, was famously made by David Hume. His attempt remains the locus classicus for those philosophers who attempt to found the aesthetic judgment upon empirical, rather than a priori, grounds. I have myself given it a limited defense (1). Recently, Hume's argument has been severely attacked by Malcolm Budd (2). His central contention is that Hume completely fails to introduce any normative element into the aesthetic judgment; he fails, that is, to give any content to the claim that some judgments on the value of a work are more warranted or appropriate than others...
The neo-expressionist movement in America lasted from the late 70s and came to an end in the early 90s. The movement was a revival of expressionism, a style in which an artist portrays emotional experience into their work (Sandler, 227). It was also a response to the popular art style of the time called minimalism, which involved mostly blank canvases or lines. Neo-expressionism, on the other hand, was raw emotion and chaos. The main figures of the movement were Julian Schnabel, David Salle, and Ada Applebroog. A pioneer of the movement, and also the focus of this essay, is Jean-Michel Basquiat. His art referenced many famous artists and art pieces, from which he found inspiration. This inspiration was one of the features that made the movement
It is instructive to the reader to point out that Tolstoy's usage of the word “art” speaks of a wide sphere of artistic expressions. Among these expressions are literature, poetry, painting, sculptures and music. According to Tolstoy, it is art that brings mankind together and allows for the commonalities in humanity to be emphasized. Tolstoy describes these commonalities as man's need for union with God and with one another. Good art, for Tolstoy, is art that expresses itself through religious perception. This religious perception is how the culture of its current time views its most important values. This is similar to William Wordsworth’s ideas for literature. It is important to Wordsworth that the author of the work express emotions that the common man can relate to. It is fundamental to Tolstoy, as with Wordsworth, that the work be accessible and understandable to all people. This is why Tolstoy supposed that music is the...
Works of art such as books, paintings, poems, and sculptures oftentimes are said to express the feelings, personalities, interests, and desires of their creator. One method for interpreting these details from books and other literary works is known as psychoanalytic literary analysis. This analysis seeks to identify the nature of relationships between characters as well as the author’s relationship with the characters. In the analyses the critic will discuss interactions between characters and with the author and often go so far as to make assertions about the author’s conscious and unconscious reasons for telling their story in the way they did. While psychoanalytic criticism is well accepted it is not without its own critics. At times it
According to Webster’s Dictionary, art is “human expression of objects by painting, etc” (10). The words “human experience” adds meaning to art. Artists reveal their inner thoughts and feelings through their work. When we study a painting by Salvador Dali, the strange objects and the surrealist background portrays the eccentricity of the painter. Some ideas cannot be explained verbally. They can only be shown via a medium. We can get across what is in our minds or our hearts by a stroke of a brush, a drop of paint, a row of words, or something else. But to express ourselves, we do not need to limit what we call art.
Art is an expression of feelings, body language, culture produced by humans. Art can be expressed in many different ways, and in many different forms from times periods way before you think! You’d be amazed with the different type of skilled work artist come up with each day and it’s all just someone, one person expressing how they feel or what they believe. One form of art that I find very interesting particular is Fauvism. Fauvism is an expressionism that is expressed by art, music literature. This type of art is the spiritually and emotional vision of the world in Artist eyes. Fauvism was a short-lived movement; it lasted only from the time period of 1905-1908. In my opinion based off of how appealing it was it could have been longer. It originated in France. Artist who produced this type of art work were called fauves, French for “wild beast” because they were described to use intense colors, uncontrollably.
Between the nineteenth and twentieth century came a time of self-expression and reflection. This time became known as the Expressionism movement and focused on boldly creating a personal and emotional experience through art. Conventional artistic stylings were cast aside as each artist discovered their own creative voice. Artists of all mediums emphasized state of mind and the essence of the human condition through bold representations of their own psyche. Edvard Munch’s painting, “The Scream” and Fritz Lang’s film, “Metropolis,” both convey aggressive emotional characteristic of the Expressionist movement through exaggerated compositional elements, distorted stylistic choices and evocative technique.
Exhibited in The Moon and Sixpence by Somerset Maugham, Expressionism differed greatly from its predecessor, Impressionism. Unlike Impressionism, Expressionism’s “goals were not to reproduce the impression suggested by the surrounding world, but to strongly impose the artist's own sensibility to the world's representation” (Web museum 1). In Expressionism, “the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse in him” (Web museum 1). Using variety of violent colors and exaggerated lines to express their intense emotions, the expressionists painted the world in a new way.
Some disagreement about the proper definition of survives from the conflict of rival schools of thought in philosophy and art criticism during the 18th ad 19th centuries, when first achieved recognition as a distinct field of knowledge and examination. The turning point which influenced most scholars to believe that leaned toward the sciences, rather than towards philosophy began with Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Aesthetic Judgment. The approach to beauty and art became more metaphysical and transcendental.
“The great variety of Taste, as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one’s observation”(text pg 255), Hume states in his opening. He then points out, “Every voice is united in applauding,”(text pg 255) all kinds of values like “elegance” and “simplicity” that are supposedly seen in an object. Hume is conveying the idea that every person has their own unique tastes in art and they all seem to agree on the aesthetic value of an object. He then brings in the critic who analyzes the pieces of the object and proposes that all previous judgments were not accurate. Hume says, “But when the critic comes to particulars, this seeming unanimity vanishes”(text pg 255). The job of t...
Art uses beauty, emotion, and drama to influence the audience into expressing their feelings. R.G. Collingwood argues that art is not an object that you can fabricate, it is the expression of emotion in your mind. Giving an expression individualizes it, which rather than describing the emotion in words, the expression is a feature of the statement itself. This means that art shouldn’t have any limits because expression wouldn’t be able to differentiate itself from others. Art is expression, it is important because we need to able to recognize what our feelings are therapeutic. Expression is needed to make art because it gives it a unique sense to it and gives people different emotions based on that expression. Collingwood is right to think that art is expression.