Vitamin A and Multiple Sclerosis
There is countless research that widely associates vitamin D and vitamin A in possibly decreasing adverse effects of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although, vitamin A is not as popular in research as vitamin D it has shown in certain trials to be beneficial to patients suffering from MS, but more commonly there is a positive link to vitamin A in animal trials of treating experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) the animal version of MS, . Vitamin A is a fat- soluble vitamin that can function in immunological responses as well as brain development. This vitamin is crucial for vision, gene transcription, and bone metabolism (7). Vitamin A may help in MS by lowering inflammation as well as increasing the tolerance of autoimmunity, which refers to the immune system destructing healthy cells in the body (1). However, excess vitamin A can lead to problems or even death due to its potency of action in addition to difficulty in excretion, related to its solubility in lipids. Retinoic acid is one of vitamin A’s major metabolites that perform in functions related to the nervous system and the immune system (1).
Multiple Sclerosis is a debilitating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which is characterized by myelin sheath destruction, where myelin refers to the fatty covering that protects the brain and spinal cord (3). Myelin is essential since it serves as a high-speed transmitter for messages traveling to the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, myelin’s destruction leads to messages slowing down or being blocked, which leads to loss of function (4). The pathophysiology or cause of MS is currently not understood, nor is there a provided treatment for the disease, although environmental factors hav...
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