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Timeline of Tolkien's Life

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In 1902, Cuba peacefully gained independence from the United States. A few years earlier, the U.S. had aided Cuban rebels in exorcising Spain from the colony. In 1898, after three years of fighting, Spain signed a peace treaty with the U.S. relinquishing its hold on Cuba, but no Cuban delegates were present. However, the Teller Amendment (4th Article of the Joint Resolution) confirmed that the U.S. would not permanently remain in Cuba. Cubans lobbied for an early execution of the Joint Resolution. After much resistance in the U.S., the Cuban Constitutional Convention met in 1900. Then, in 1901, the Cuban Constitution was completed, including an appendix allowing U.S. intervention if needed. Finally, in 1902, Tomás Estradas Palma was elected the first president of Cuba, confirming Cuba’s new status as a country. The Entente Cordiale was an agreement between France and Britain that settled multiple land disputes and helped the countries on their way to political cooperation. It gave French acknowledgement to Britain’s authority over Egypt and Britain formally recognized France’s jurisdiction in Morocco. Britain also gave France upper Gambia Valley, the Los Islands, and formalized Nigeria’s perimeter in France’s interests. In turn, France gave Britain access to some Newfoundland fisheries. France and Britain defined their land in Thailand as well. France received the eastern territories and Britain received the western. Thus, previous tensions between the two countries were eased, which was very important with World War I on the horizon. World War I originated as a war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia due to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the heir to Austria-Hungary’s throne) by a Serbian man, which Austria-Hunga... ... middle of paper ... ...ent Biography Oct. 1967: n. pag. Print. 7. Pickover, Clifford A. "Silly Putty." The Physics Book: From the Big Bang to Quantum Resurrection, 250 Milestones in the History of Physics. New York: Sterling Pub., 2011. 384. Print. 8. Shippey, T. A. J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Print. 9. "Stick or Switch? Probability Explained." BBC News. BBC, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. 10. "Summary of World War One." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2014. 11. Tolkien, J. R. R., Humphrey Carpenter, and Christopher Tolkien. The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981. Print. 12. "Weird Science: The Accidental Invention of Silly Putty - KIDS DISCOVER." KIDS DISCOVER. Kids Discover, 19 Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. 13. Willett, Edward. J.R.R. Tolkien: Master of Imaginary Worlds. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2004. Print.
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