Influenced by the new growth models, developing countries were encouraged to implement trade liberalization under the promise that it will promote faster growth. Many influential empirical papers tried to measure the effect of trade policy or openness on growth and came up with the evidence that trade restrictions have a negative impact on growth. However, the way some papers used to proxy openness >>>>>>.In addition some papers Ignored >>>.Some economists surveyed the literature between the eighties and the nineties on openness and growth and found that >>>>>>>>>>> such as the study conducted by <<< and by <<<<. It is not wrong to encourage out-warded policy but it is wrong to put such a heavy weight on it because that will distract d... ... middle of paper ... ...Economic Development and Cultural Change, 1992, 523-544. Dollar, D., & Kraay, A.
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