The Industrial Revolution consisted of scientific innovations, a vast increase in industrial production, and a rapid growth of urban populations which consequently shaped a new social structure in the European continent. Initially in the late eighteenth century, the new industrialization period produced dominant bourgeoisie employers and a united men, women, and children workers. The continued increase of factories coupled with a need for employees made the Proletariats within a short period of time a large, underprivileged, hungry, and desperate for money. Meanwhile, their bourgeoisie employers grew authoritative and wealthy as production and profit soared. Despite the common ties between proletariat workers upon the outbreak of the revolution, by the later half of the nineteenth century, these once-unified workers had branched into distinctly different classes based on their skill level, while the working spheres of men and women grew increasingly isolated from one another. The Industrial Revolution’s foundation began with many new technical inventions that widened the need for industrial workers. Hargreave’s spinning jenny and Arkwright’s water frame both allowed inexperienced workers to spin yarn much faster than talented cottage weavers. Thus, these developments not only assisted the manufacture of cotton goods by making the process much quicker, but they also began the cultivation of a new class of factory workers. For the first time, men, women, and children united in a single working space with complicated machinery to work for middle-class employers. Critics defined this new class of workers as being made up of “part-humans: soulless depersonalized, disembodied, who could become members, or little wheels rather of a complex mechanism” who yielded to their boss’s every demand (Pollard 1). Once-skilled artisans and craftsmen were often subject to working routine processes as machines began to mass produce the goods formerly made by hand. This change in labor had a devastating impact on accomplished workers; they were no longer any different than their unskilled counterparts, women, and children in the eyes of factory owners. Due to the noticeable difference between Proletariats and the Bourgeoisie, social relations came to be excessively discussed across the European continent. Many people adhered to the idea that individuals were members of economic... ... middle of paper ... ...time also fell into the class of unskilled laborers. Women were generally confined to low-paying jobs that did not have sufficient enough wages for them to live independently. Most often, women found themselves working as domestic servants, which served as the largest component of this group. All unskilled workers were united by their meager earnings. No development in modern history has altered European society more than the Industrial Revolution. The onset of this revolution not only dramatically increased the efficiency of production, but it altered European’s wealth and urban populations while creating numerous jobs. A new, complex social system resulted that created composed of two different phases. At the onset of the revolution, a wealthy middle class overpowered a large urban working class that comprised of men, women, and children. However, as the revolution furthered, the once united working class was further divided between skilled and unskilled workers. Also, the spheres of men and women no longer intertwined and females were to remain at home and tend to family matters. The Industrial Revolution ultimately changed the social hierarchy of European workers remarkably.
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Industrialization had a major impact on the lives of every American, including women. Before the era of industrialization, around the 1790's, a typical home scene depicted women carding and spinning while the man in the family weaves (Doc F). One statistic shows that men dominated women in the factory work, while women took over teaching and domestic services (Doc G). This information all relates to the changes in women because they were being discriminated against and given children's work while the men worked in factories all day. Women wanted to be given an equal chance, just as the men had been given.
The Industrial Revolution in America began to develop in the mid-eighteen hundreds after the Civil War. Prior to this industrial growth the work force was mainly based in agriculture, especially in the South (“Industrial Revolution”). The advancement in machinery and manufacturing on a large scale changed the structure of the work force. Families began to leave the farm and relocate to larger settings to work in the ever-growing industries. One area that saw a major change in the work force was textile manufacturing. Towns in the early nineteen hundreds were established around mills, and workers were subjected to strenuous working conditions. It would take decades before these issues were addressed. Until then, people worked and struggled for a life for themselves and their families. While conditions were harsh in the textile industry, it was the sense of community that sustained life in the mill villages.
The time period from 1860 to 1914 is defined by the surfacing of the "mass societies." The social order practically ignored the industrial proletariat and the foundation for a reform was laid. The industrial proletariat refers to all the workers who desperately depended on their wages. These people had absolutely no role in politics or in society in general. Even as late as 1860, the workers had to depend on themselves only to improve their social conditions. During the Industrial Revolution, as the number of machines mu...
In 1800s, the industrial revolution spread across the United States, which significantly change the way of manufacturing and labor society function. More and more Europeans were transferred to America, which increased the population of America. In addition, the larger transportation and communication made the old type of labor conventions and household manufactory became outdated. At that time, the “Artisan Republicanism” was extraordinary popular in the United States, people work depended on their workmanships, and people were also able to be their own boss on the job. However, factory based workplaces replaced the traditional patterns of work, which significantly increased the efficiency of manufactory industry, but on the other hand, labors met big problem, not only on the status of a master in their field, but also on the lower wages and longer working hours. American workers found that they had become “wage slaves”. In response of these changes, laborers started protesting the new revolution, resisted changes of older traditions of work,
In Britain, industrialization changed the lives of workers in many ways. One way workers lives changed is being able to earn higher wages. They could make more money in factories than on farms. Wi...
After machine-production, most factory employer’s wanted workers fit for exactly what they needed them for. In the late 1700’s, many women and children were hired for factory work because of their small, nimble body structure, which makes them capable of running and fixing the meticulously designed machines. Another employment preference is most directly women workers because they were easier to manage and to teach machine work to than men and could be paid less for the same job. Furthermore, single women were employer’s top interest because they were predicted less likely to strike and protest against the corporation. A surplus in female factory employment resulted in family problems because the “caretaker” of the family could very likely be working twelve hour days and oftentimes getting sick from unclean work conditions (Ellis and Esler 204). Their call for help in their industrial issues was soon answered by a group of organized laborers, more commonly referred to as a labor union.
The Industrial Revolution in nineteenth-century England brought about many changes in British society. It was the advent of faster means of production, growing wealth for the Nation and a surplus of new jobs for thousands of people living in poverty. Cities were growing too fast to adequately house the numerous people pouring in, thus leading to squalid living conditions, increased filth and disease, and the families reliance upon their children to survive. The exploitation of children hit an all time peak in Britain when generations of its youth were sacrificed to child labor and the “Coffers” of England.
Poor working and living conditions were only a few major concerns in the duration of the industrial revolution of the 19th century. Concerns were addressed by socialist thinkers Owen in his document A New View of Society and Tristan author of “Workers Your Condition… is Miserable and Distressing,” who observed the negative impact the industrial revolution had on the workers. Therefore Owen and Tristan proposed solutions to alleviating these concerns of industrialization through observing the family units impacts, providing a solution to problem of society, and providing agency to better the lives of the workers of society. Owen and Tristan addressed the major concerns of society caused by the industrial revolution.
In the film Working Lives, we learn of the history of the working class during the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution started the social structure of working classes in society and technology opened many doors for skilled and unskilled labor. In the 18th and 19th centuries unskilled laborers could find jobs in factories, mines, and mills, thanks to technological advances. In today’s world, technological advances are taking over the unskilled labor positions.
With many craftsmen out of jobs and more hungry laborers coming from Europe, the society was changing and growing and innovations had to keep up with that. “Pressure for change came from several directions. Immigrants from Europe, especially the Middle Atlantic region, increased the supply of urban labor” (332). Men came from Europe in the hopes that they could create big industries, especially because they knew that there was enough space and people to make it happen successfully. One of the biggest industries to arise during the industrial revolution was the addition of textile mills. These textile mills could quadruple the amount of work one woman could do at home. These factories provided many people with employment but many of the employees complained that they were working long hours without enough money earned to compensate for it. “But increasing competition in the textile industry cut profits, and by the 1830s, operatives found wages cut, boardinghouse rents raised, or workloads increased. Twice, in 1834 and again in 1836, women took strike action to resist these changes” (351). Most women that could not find jobs before the industrial revolution gained them after but they felt the injustice that was being put on them. Consequently, it was very popular for the employees to build labor unions to fight against what republicanism was turning out to
The Industrial Revolution was a time of great change and increased efficiency. No more would be goods be produced by sole means of farming and agriculture, but now by the use of machinery and factories. Technology was beginning to increase along with the food supply as well as the population. However, this increase in population would greatly impact the social aspect of that time. Urbanization was becoming much more widespread. Cities were becoming overwhelmingly crowded and there was an increase in disease as well as harsh child labor. Although child labor would be reduced somewhat due to unions, the Industrial Revolution still contained both it’s positive and negative results.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the Industrial Revolution in Europe had a significant influence on society. There were many changes in social classes and equality. The rise of the middle class had a momentous effect on the population of Europe and was a catalyst for many changes in the social makeup of the region. The influence of technology and electricity changed many aspects of social interaction and created a new class system. The migration of workers and the separation of the classes had political and social repercussions throughout Europe. Labor unions and political parties provided protection and a voice to many of the working class, and urbanization provided the stage for reformers to push for modernized cities. Women in this era also had distinct differences in their treatment and standing regardless of their social class. Two of the key social concerns of this new industrial era in Europe mainly revolved around the emerging social classes and the equality of women.
According to Gilbert and Kahl, the working class of society makes up about 30% of America’s population. Situated between the lower-middle-class and the working poor, the working class is identified as being the lowest level of middle class that can be attained. People categorized as part of the working class often times have their high school diplomas, GEDs, or another equivalent degree that allows them to get jobs. Many times, the types of jobs they attain are physically demanding and provide an annual income of about $35,000. It is hard for individuals in the working class to find better paying jobs with less physical labor involved because of their lack of experience, skills, or higher education. However, those jobs that are available do usually provide benefits. Signs of a working class lifestyle include minimum levels of housing, appropriate healthcare, enough food to maintain a household, adequate transportation, and clothing. According to the textbook, the chief element of a middle class life is working to maintain a comfortable
Karl Marx describes “Society as a whole [as being] more and more [split] up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other-bourgeoisie and proletariat” (Marx 124). As Marx made his distinction between upper class, bourgeoisie, and lower class, proletariats, it is important to keep in mind the societal structure at the time. To understand how classes were created and the disparity between the rich and poor, or, bourgeoisie and proletariat, it is necessary to examine how people came to be rich and poor. Exploring a time before money existed will help us to process and understand reasons why the binary between rich and poor exists and how it is reflective of low and high art distinctions.