Over a period, more, and more detailed information would be exchanged. The social penetration theory can’t go without the discussion of self-disclosure as it is most important in developing relationships. Self-disclosure is the gradual unfolding of one’s self. It is defined as, “verbally communicating personal information about the self to another person (Forgas 449).” Depending on the stage of the relationship the information can range from thoughts, feelings, goals, fears, dreams, and favorites. Individuals usually maintain protective outer layers that surround a central core that represents the true self.
113). Its proposers, Altman and Taylor assert that self-disclosure is a part of this theory as individuals get to know each other and open up to one another. People share private and personal information and penetrate into each other lives. Through self-disclosure, a close and profound relationship is attained, and partners expose their vulnerability to each other. Self-disclosure builds trust and commitment in intimate relationships.
Social Penetration "Decisions about self-disclosure - whether to reveal one's thoughts, feelings, or past experiences to another person, or the level of intimacy of such disclosure - are part of the everyday life of most persons" (Derlega and Berg, 1987, p. ix). The decisions one makes on the issue of whether or not to self-disclose with others affects not only the types of relationships one will have with others and how they are perceived, but also how well they know themselves. Clearly, self-disclosure plays a major role in the development of close relationships. Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor, the theorists behind Social Penetration theory, recognized this fact and designed their theory to illustrate and explain this process of self-disclosure through social penetration. In this paper, I will explain Altman and Taylor's Social Penetration theory and the framework behind it, offer come critiques that have been made about the theory by other communication scholars, and present examples of studies conducted using the ideas of social penetration.
The same holds true for people; as we get to know someone better we expose more layers of their personality and hence become closer to the core of the individual, or the private self The outer layers of our personality is the public self, or characteristics that are apparent to people we do not know very well. Some of these characteristics include a person's world view, studies, and tastes (Griffin, 1997, p. 145). Altman and Taylor proceed to say that in order for people to develop close and meaningful relationships penetration must occur; this process requires self-disclosure and vulnerability in order to be achieved. People are able to choose who they want to become closer to and to decide how much of their private self they want to expose. According to Sidney Jourard, author of Transparent Self (1980), "You cannot collaborate with another person toward some common end unless you know him.
This principle is the knowledge of the spouse’s small memories in life. This is the creation of a connection, which is a requirement for a healthy relationship. It is important for a husband and wife to connect, which means that they are turning towards one another, and this only achieved by the reflecting of minor times that are spent together connecting. The result of this is that partners will feel valued and appreciated by their partner. Gottman says that turning toward each other forms the foundation of emotional linking, passion, romance and an enjoyable sex life among couples.
Self – Disclosure is a process of communication by which one person reveals information about himself or herself to another. The information can be descriptive or evaluative, and can include thoughts, feelings, aspirations, goals, failures, successes, fears, and dreams, as well as one 's likes, dislikes, and favorites. We reveal ourselves most thoroughly and discuss the widest range of topics with our spouses and loved ones. Self-disclosure is an important building block for intimacy and cannot be achieved without it. Most self-disclosure occurs early in relational development, but more intimate self-disclosure occurs later.
According to Wilson (2011), the key to effective and successful social work is the quality of the relationship with the social worker and the clients. Furthermore, social work is all about relationships. Relationship with colleagues and organisation, relationship with the clients, and most importantly, a relationship with the self which means having recognises oneself to see others as a unique individual in various circumstances. As Harrison & Ruth (2007) stated as for the effective practice, one need to reflect, critically analyse their experience and make sense of what happened. Therefore, self-analysis and reflection influence social work
Personal relationships are highly dynamic, and for people to enjoy the benefits, they must be ready to make sacrifices, employ a few skills to keep the fire burning, gather information, practice to do what a particular relationship demands and get social support if needed. Friendship is a form of personal relationship where close ties exist between two or more people and they live in a platform where mutual experiences, shared interests, emotional connection and proximity and social support are embraced. Real life friendships are closer than the online type in the current world. Unlike partnerships such as romance and marriage, friendship is immune to deep affection and flourishes on a bed of deep trust. Betraying that trust can ruin the friendship for good but people with social knowledge skills and with a great history together find a way to make up.
Information that already known for this workplace attachment construct is the level of individual attachment in their workplace will indicate whether the individual will remain working in the same place or change their workplace. 7)Who will use this test? A) Public Services Commission of Malaysia . Workplace attachment test will be highly beneficial towards individuals that are responsible in screening people who are applying for the public service job .This is vital because the future employees for the public service job will be work more productive and efficient if they are working in positions that are suitable with their attachment style.For example,highly secured people are required for the diplomat officer position.This is due to the nature of the diplomacy job itself which needed people who are secure with themselves . B)Private sectors.Generally ,private sectors place high value towards meritocracy,highly independent individuals,and teamwork.So,avoidant and anxious attachment style people will be unsuitable for the highly competitive workplace like in private sectors.Hence, workplace attachment test will help private sectors employers from hiring people who are avoidant and anxious attachment type.This will prevent any possible conflicts that might threaten harmony in workplace due to the avoidant and anxious
The central feature of Jean Piaget’s social learning theory is that learning and imagination are both important Bandura’s work on observational learning suggests that we can learn vicariously from others. Functionalist theorists contend that social institutionsassure the stability and continuance of society. Socialisation is a term used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, political scientists, and educationalists to refer to the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs, values and ideologies, providing an individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within their own society Socialization describes a process which may lead to desirable outcomes—sometimes labeled "moral"—as regards the society where it occurs. Individual views on certain issues, for instance race or economics, are influenced by the society's consensus and usually tend toward what that society finds acceptable or "normal". In regard to problem solving, functional fixedness hinders solutions.