Because of this success, Native American code talkers were again called upon in World War II (Meadows, “Honoring”). Even though Germany and Japan had sent students to learn Native American culture and language after WWI, they were not prepared for the intricacy of the Navajo language (“Navajo- Unbreakable Code”). “The Navajo language seemed to be the perfect option as a code because it is not written and very few people who aren’t of Navajo origin can speak it” (“Navajo- Unbreakable Code”). First of all, to become a Navajo code talker, one had to speak both Navajo and English fluently, and have a minimum tenth grade education (Takaki, 68). Although not recruited until April 1942, the Navajo would see their first action as code talkers later that year ... ... middle of paper ... ...
3. Miranda v. Arizona: Certiorari to The Supreme Court of Arizona. (1966). United States Supreme Court. Retrieved April 23, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/Miranda/ 4.. Mount, S. (2003).
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After accepting Philip Johnston’s offer, Marine recruiters visited Navajo schools in Fort WIngate, Arizona and Shiprock, New Mexico to find the most educated Navajos to create an unbreakable and successful code. The Marines agreed to only take 30 Navajos, because they didn’t want to lose much money in case of a disaster. After a long search and the men were selected, the chosen Navajos were taken to a San Diego training camp in California (Aaseng 22). While living in the camps, Navajo men had to adapt to many different things such as new foods, living quarters, mechanical equipment, and competition which was never part of Navajo culture. These were all hard, temporary parts of life for the Navajo, but not as hard as adjusting to military discipline (Aaseng 27).
Chicago: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc, 1989. Lawrence, Elizabeth Atwood. “Sun Dance.” 2 Feb. 2002 http://www.crystalinks.com/sundance.html> ”Massacre At Wounded Knee, 1890” 1998. 5 March 02 http://www.ibiscom.com McGaa, Ed. Mother Earth Spirituality: Native American Paths to Healing Ourselves and Our World.
Monestersky, Marsha 1997 Chronology of the Navajo-Hopi Land Dispute. Electronic document. http://www.applicom.com/vbm/Chron.htm Redhouse, John. 1985 Geopolitics of the Navajo Hopi Land Dispute. Albuquerque, N.M. : Redhouse/Wright Prod.
William T. Hagan, American Indians (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993) 176. Vine Deloria, Jr. ed., American Indian Policy in the Twentieth Century (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1985) 43. Vine Deloria, Jr. and Clifford M. Lytle, American Indians, American Justice (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983) 99. Emma R. Gross, Contemporary Federal Policy Towards American Indians (New York: Greenwood Press 1989) 20.
JapaneseAmericans In the early 1940’s, there was evidence of Japanese-American loyalty and innocence, but the information was not always well known. This, coupled with the factors of war hysteria led to the legal upholding of concentration camps in Korematsu v. U.S. (1944). The injustice was clouded, most immediately by the war, and indirectly by racism at home. The sneak attack on Pearl Harbor left a permanent indent on the way Americans viewed the Japanese. Indeed, it was this one act which thrust the isolationist U.S. into the middle of the world’s biggest war.
Native Tech: Native American Technology and Art. http://www.nativeweb.org/NativeTech/coil/coil.html (20 March 1999). Robinson, Bert. The Basket Weavers of Arizona. Alburquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1954.
“The case against Bilingual education” The Atlantic Online. www.theatlantic.com. April 23, 2003. Zehr, M. (2003). “New Arizona Chief clamps down on Bilingual rules” Education Week.http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=24arizona.h22&keywords=bilingual%20education.