6/7/10 The Incas and Socialism During the history of early America, one of the most well-known peoples of South America were the Incas. The Inca Empire was one of the most advanced in America when the Spanish began exploring the Pacific coast of South America in the 1520s. One must imagine the shock of the Spanish Conquistadores lead by Francisco Pizarro when they marched into Incan towns and cities. Incan language, culture, technology, and social structure was very unique and very different from their own. Even today, modern historians find it difficult to place the Inca into a specific political and economic system. The dominant thinking by historians such as George Murdock in the 20th Century is that the Inca were a socialist society. At first glance, it would seem to appear so. There was very little individuality and there was a large emphasis put on working collectively for the state. However, when one looks at the full extent of the Inca social structure, one sees that only in a local context could the Incas ever be called a socialist society. Rather, the Inca were a society with a complex social hierarchy with only a communal economic system at the local level. There were no socialist elements in their centralized government, which was essentially politically authoritarian. Though socialism is an important term in the modern world few people have an exact understanding of what it means. It is usually merged into the definitions of Communism and Marxism though it is a very different economic and political system. According to Mastrianna &Hailstones book, Basic Economics, "Socialism involves strict government regulation of production and distribution and is advocated as a way to pro... ... middle of paper ... ...yze the social hierarchy of the Inca Empire, which counted on distinct levels of class to conduct certain levels of work, one can only conclude that they were not a socialist society. Works Cited Malpass, Michael Andrew. Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1996. Print. Nishi, Dennis. The Inca Empire. San Diego: Lucent, 2000. Print. Moore, Sally F. Power and Property in Inca Peru. 1st ed. New York Ctiy: Columbia UP, 1958. Print. Mastrianna, Frank V., and Thomas J. Hailstones. Basic Economics. 11th ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Pub., 1998. Print Galbraith, John Kenneth, and Nicole Salinger. Almost Everyone's Guide to Economics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978. Print. Harris, Kevin R. "WAS THE INCA EMPIRE A SOCIALIST STATE." (2006): 55-60. Web. 5 June 2010. .
Both the Aztec and Incan civilizations used trade, tribute, redistribution of goods, and agriculture to balance out their economy. However, the Aztecs had a more mixed organization, the use of more than one functions, used trade markets, and had a merchant class, unlike the opposing Incan economy. The Aztecs were more engaged with trade than the Incans, shown with the trade markets at Tlatelolco. Tlatelolco was a trade market controlled by the merchant class, or Pochteca and the development of currency was put in place using beans and or gold dust. On the other hand, the Incans did not have trade markets due to their trade being more informal, along with no merchant class or currency. To help specifically long distance trade, advanced road systems were put in place as way stations. Both civilizations used tribute and was an important aspect to the economic organization, but the Aztecs collected goods and the Incans collected labor, mita. ...
Inca women autonomy was destroyed by empirical conquest. There was an inherent loss of feminine spirituality with every re-mapping of the empire’s boundaries. They lost their powerful female deities and were repaid with gendered predetermination. Men allowed conquest to detach them from the Inca belief system of balance and equality that pre-dated any need for expansion. Conquest hierarchy was enforced and unquestioned. An all though the Inca political people gained power, they lost social harmony.
The Inca government was one of the most efficient and complex of ancient history, Spanish conquistadors could do nothing but stand in awe while contemplating the complexity in their society. Mostly because Spaniards found many tangible resemblances between Spain's monarchy and the structural hierarchy in which the “antiquated” Incan Empire revolted around. The Incas consolidated a strong Empire based on coercion and rewards over conquered tribes that served a centralized power in Tahuantinsuyo. They were maintained in check through appointed representatives and tax collectors who were empowered to carry out punishment for crimes,
The Aztec Empire stood for many years but never expanded much, only conquering small neighboring civilizations. The Aztec Empire was founded in the 6th century and didn’t fall until 1525. The Inca Civilization was a bit different. The Inca Civilization conquered as many lands that it could but quickly fell after just 100 years. In this essay I will be comparing the government, economics, and culture in the Aztec Civilizationand the Inca Empire.
The Inca Empire, the massive nation that extended 2,500 miles along the western coast of South America and had a population of over 7 million at its peak. It included all of what is now Ecuador and Peru and most of Chile. Known as “The Children of the Sun”, they excelled at craftsmanship, weaving, and culture (“Children of the Sun”). A very religious people, they worshiped the Sun as their supreme god and held religious festivals monthly to appease these gods. Although they did not value it aside from its beautiful appearance, the Inca Empire was home to millions of pounds of solid gold and silver. The Inca had no use for it except to use it to craft decorations and statues. In fact, an Inca citizen valued cloth more than they valued gold or silver. Their collapse would be brought about because of the Spanish invasion, a brutal civil war that weakened the empire, and deadly disease brought over from Europe.
This reading was an excellent collection of articles, because it presented seven different views of the Incan empire. It does a good job of trying to idealize the Incas, justify their conquest by the Spanish, and label their government using modern terms. In retrospect, it is easy for us to look back at history and study it, but it is always a necessity to learn from what we study. If there is one thing to learn from the European conquest of the America's, it is that destroying a race of beings and their culture is an injustice to the conquered, and the conquerors.
The original occupants of the Latin American country Peru and surrounding areas were the Incas. These people were organized into local ethnic groups or communities of about four to ten people. The Incas were composed of corporate kinship groups and grouped into hierarchical dual organizations called moieties. Also these ethnic groups were endogamous and leadership amongst them was based on hereditary standards. Therefore political, religious and economic responsibilities were placed upon kuracas or native elites who inherited their status. The most important aspect of Andean life in the Andes amongst these people dealt with agriculture. Incan landscapes were very unique and can at best be described as very rugged terrain stretched out over the Andes mountains...
This paper discusses the development of a civilization defining its ten characteristics it will define why this civilization developed. For this purpose, the civilization of the Incas from South America has been selected; however, this paper will focus on a particular people of this civilization that lived in Machu Picchu. The civilization of the Incas lived on the territory of South America, in an area now occupied by the modern Peru. The capital has been located in the city of Cuzco. The name "Inca" is not given by self-people, but Europeans mistakenly gave it since the local tribes called their supreme ruler, and came to their land the Spaniards came to be called as the whole nation (Abbott & Wolfe 2003). This unique culture has existed as a unit until the 1780-1782 periods (Velasco, 1992).
In document 4, “As soon as the Incan ruler had conquered any kingdom and set up his government, he ordered that the farmland used and grow corn be extended. For this purpose, he ordered irrigation channels and be constructed”. This was a significant achievement because this engineering technique makes it possible for corn and other crops and be grown on land that otherwise might not be productive.The Inca empire was supported by taxes, and agriculture pays a big role and it. Document 5 is a map that shows the Incan empire in 1565. This map shows the roads and trail with which the government unites its empire in the Andes Mountains. This also shows their engineering skills. As well as to document 6, where a photograph of the ruins of Machu Picchu is shown this provides more evidence of the superior building design and farming techniques of the Incas in Peru. The Incas used fitted stones together and built houses. They also terraced mountainsides and increase the farmland available and grow crops.
Incas are known by many people. They had their own way of doing things and ideas about life. The Inca were part of an empire knowns as The Incan Empire. It was the largest empire in pre columbian america. It could have possibly even have been the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative, political, and military center of the empire was located in what is now known as Peru. At first the Inca incorportated a major part of South America. The Inca had many troubles because they had a major lack of the things that would help them become civilized easier. They had a lack of wheels, animals that could help them work, the lack of a written language, the lack of knowledge for steel, etc. Many say that if they would have
Janos Gyarmati’s Paria la Viexa and an expanding empire: Provincial centers in the political economy of the Inka Empire proved that the Inca’s built an empire unlike another. From 1440 to 1532 A.D. the Inca Empire dominated the Americas. Known as “the fastest growing and largest territorial empire”(Gyarmati 37) of its time the Inca Empire left a mark with their complex, perpetual and innovative economic, road, and settlement system. The Inca’s were advanced for their time, however they lacked a system that would guarantee the survival of their kin. In order to strive, for the long-term, the Inca’s created provincial centers that would ensure their growth and economy for the generations to come. Provincial centers served as both the focal economic and administrative points of the Inca Empire. The impaction of Inca Empire’s multiple uses of their provincial centers will reign for all of eternity, unified the overall elements of the Janos Gyarmati’s article in regards to society, production, features,