Due to global warming, the frequency of coral bleaching is predicted to continue to increase (Baker et al., 2008; Spillman et al., 2013) Numerous reefs across the world experience coral bleaching rather than just one reef. Coral bleaching can have a devastating effect on a region 's tourism industry and can cause not only coral mortality, but the death of other animals that rely on coral to survive. Higher ocean temperatures not only result in more frequent coral bleaching, but can increase other threats to the survival of coral. Furthermore, repeated bleaching increases the chance of fatal bleaching events (Baker et al., 2008). Moreover, despite coral surviving higher sea temperatures in the past, there are many other factors contributing to coral bleaching.
Even the slightest changes in the environment, such as pH fluxes and temperature rises, result in catastrophic events including coral bleaching. The Belize Barrier Reef and the Great Barrier Reef are two reefs that have experienced the most severe coral bleaching. This detrimental not only to the fish which depend on the coral, but to the economies of the surrounding countries which thrive on various water-related tourist attractions. With the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases, this trend only seems to be on the rise unless something is done to reverse it. Corals may be able to adapt to these stresses over time, but the real solution comes from lowering human carbon and other greenhouse gas output.
This results in heating of the atmosphere and the surface layers of the sea, with negative impact on corals: heat stress, acidification of the sea and increase in the frequency and magnitude of cyclones. There are other consequences of local pollution and enrichment with nutrients from the water. Currently, we analyze the implications of emerging diseases in populations of key corals, which are both of ocean warming, and pollution. Apparently the loss of quality of environmental conditions also results in a depletion of its immune resistance, which increases susceptibility to infection by pathogenic bacteria, it was reported. At the local level, the most important conditions are known as white diseases, for the speed with which wipe out the tissue, leaving only the skeleton, and the yellow band, that attacking the zooxanthellae - symbionts of indispensable corals to build the reefs--is fatal for agencies.
Some key predators may be too abundant or there may not be enough predators having a top down and bottom up effect on the trophic system. I believe Kurihara’s work and findings is the most important because it shows the most direct impacts of ocean acidification on organisms and that this is a problem that needs to dealt with now before it gets worst and completely destroys the coral reefs and marine ecosystem. Seawater pH is expected to rise worldwide and many species will have very little chance to avoid these acidic conditions. These species will have to either have to adapt to this change or disappear due to extinction.
Climate Change and Tourism In the world, climate change is becoming more apparent that it is causing flooding, landslides and extreme temperatures. It is affecting the wildlife, human and the nature. Because of the change in climatic condition, in different nations, summer periods could be extended or winter may be longer than usual. Dr. Viner David and Agnew Maureen (11-14 January,2000,) comment that the impacts of climate change on tourism are likely to manifest themselves in a number of different ways according to local conditions. The most serious impacts will result from the effects of sea level rise on small island states and low lying coastal resorts.
The second largest factor is climate change. Global warming is creating a rise in water temperatures as well, and causing fish to change the areas in which they live. These migrations are creating an unbalanced ecosystem and effecting the reefs
This is concerning because the sea temperatures are also rising. Healthy sea temperature is vital to reef building and controls the speed of coral reef development. Escalating sea temperature is endangering distribution and diversity of marine life. In conclusion, the Great Barrier Reef is in danger due to climate change issues such as ocean acidification, greenhouse gasses and many others previously discussed. In order to protect the reef, changes in society need to be made.
1999). Because of this increase in temperatures, the future of our worlds coral reefs are in danger and at risk to things like coral bleaching, effects of rising ocean acidification levels and the effects from sea levels rising. Coral bleaching is the loss of a corals’ zooxanthellae that lives in the tissues of the coral and because of this loss the corals turn completely white. Coral bleaching is mostly caused by the warm temperatures of the water which means that climate change can have an effect on the coral reefs. Corals live in very nutrient poor waters and have certain zones of tolerance to water temperature, salinity, UV radiation, opacity, and nutrient quantities (Jason Buchheim).
Rising sea levels and the damage caused by this phenomenon has irreversible impacts on coastlines worldwide. Damage to sensitive reef systems cannot be fixed. This also has permanent impacts of the ecology not just of those immediate areas but also the ocean as a whole. Any discussion of the irreversibility of Climate Change needs to be briefly pre-empted by an explanation of the causes for Climate Change. (Newton G. 2009) ‘Australia's environmental climate change challenge’ states that “Anthropogenic warming of the global climate system is beyond doubt.
Spencer Hall (2008), discussed in his article “Coral Reefs and Climate Change”, how the increase in climate change puts a lot of stress on coral reefs because they are very sensitive to the change of temperature. Rigel B (2003) states in his essay, “Climate Change and Coral Reefs”, that coral reef has already been negatively impacted by