In Struggle : SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. United States of America, Boston: Harvard University Press. page 9 23. j. garrow,D (2004). Bearing the cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New york: HarperCollins .
One of the most important issues that has been extensively studied in regard to African American experience is the issue of leadership and politics. For a long time, African-American leadership has been sidelined until the rise of civil rights movements starting from 1950s. Since then, African Americans have exerted their position in United States leadership culminating in election of current President Barrack Obama, who became the first African-American president of the country. African American leadership and participation in politics and public institution is a case example of resilience in a hostile environment laden with segregation and historical tag of slavery. Before delving into the issue of leadership and political participation, it is important to operationalize the term African Americans as shall be used in this paper and in historical context.
Urging uplift for American Blacks: two recent books – a critique. The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies, 33(3), 351-369. Retrieved June 28, 2010 from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1582249371). Pierson, P. (2010, July).
This was due to the various laws and social morals that were sustained for over 100 years throughout the United States. However, what the world didn’t know was that African Americans were a strong ethnic group and these oppressions and suffrage enabled African Americans for greatness. It forced African Americans to constantly have to explore alternative routes of intellectuality, autonomy and other opportunities to achieve the “American Dream” especially after the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were passed after the Civil War. This type of integration that they pursued helped them realize their full potential and created their political self-determination, which dates back to as far as the 18th century at the African Methodist Episcopal Church by Richard Allen. The question is, is how did they do it?
Our pr... ... middle of paper ... ... Banks, James F. et.al. Black Self-Concept. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1972. Baughman, E. Earl. Black Americans: A Psychological Analysis.