Schizophrenia is not a new mental disorder. Through written documents, it can be traced to the Pharaoh days in Egypt and even further back to the second millennium before Christ. The disease was first identified as a mental illness by German psychiatrist Dr. Emile Kraepelin in 1887. Kraepelin, identified by H.J. Eysenck's Encyclopedia of Psychology as the founder of modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology and psychiatric gene, was the first to make a distinction in the psychotic disorders between what he called dementia praecox and manic depression. He believed that dementia praecox was primarily a disease of the brain, and particularly a form of dementia. Kraepelin named the disorder 'dementia praecox' (early dementia) to distinguish it from other forms of dementia (such as Alzheimer's disease) which typically occur late in life. It wasn’t until 1911 when Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler, coined the term "schizophrenia". Bleuler changed the name to schizophrenia because Kraepelin's name was misleading as the illness was not a dementia (it did not always lead to mental deterioration) and could occur late in life as well as early. Schizophrenia" comes from the Greek roots schizo (split) and phrene (mind) to describe the fragmented thinking of people with the disorder. He was also the first to describe the symptoms of schizophrenia as "positive" or "negative." Both Bleuler and Kraepelin subdivided schizophrenia into categories, based on symptoms and prognosis. There are five types described in the DSM-III: disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, residual, and undifferentiated. The first three categories were originally proposed by Kraepelin. The DSM- III stands for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders whic...
... middle of paper ...
... rehabilitation to improve work functioning have shown some promise, but more research is needed, particularly that which focuses on improving how well the person with schizophrenia functions in real-world situations.
Peer-to-peer treatment is also a promising possible intervention. It promotes active constructive involvement from people who have schizophrenia, provides role models for individuals whose functioning is less stable, and may be accessible in individual and group settings, in person as well as by telephone or through the Internet. However, further research is necessary to demonstrate its effectiveness in decreasing symptoms or otherwise clearly improving functioning for people with schizophrenia. There are many foundations dedicated to not only finding a possible cure, but finding new treatments and just improving the lives of schizophrenics in general.
Classical antipsychotic treatments are commonly used to treat schizophrenic patients with major positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as Thorazine, Haldol, and Stelazine (Gleitman et al., 2011). Antipsychotic treatments are usually administered with a variety of psychosocial treatments including social skills training, vocational rehabilitation, supported employment, family therapy, or individual therapy (Barlow & Durand, 2014). This is to reduce relapse and help the patient improve their skills in deficits and comply in consuming the
Turkington D, Dudley R, Warman DM, and Beck AT (2006) Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Review Focus, Spring 2006; 4: 223 - 233.
Turkington, D & Dudley, R 2006, ‘Cognitive-behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: A review,’ Focus, vol. 4, pp. 223-233.
It is not until the Church’s power begins to fade that science could rise to the forefront for the understanding and treatment of disorders. However, science’s reasoning for schizophrenia failed sometimes too. For instance, an explanation of schizophrenia that developed in the 1900’s by Freud believed that schizophrenia evolves from conditions that are caused by a world that is exceedingly strident towards individuals either by parents that have been unnurturing to their children or if they have experienced a trauma. However, in 1948 Frieda Fromm-Reichmann expanded on Freud’s ...
“Schizophrenia is Greek and comes from the words ‘split’ (skhizein) and ‘mind’ (phren) which was introduced by Eugen Bleuler. Schizophrenia is a devastating psychotic disorder that may involve characteristic disturbances in thinking (delusions), perception (hallucinations), speech, emotions, and behavior” (Barlow and Durand, page G-17, 470). It is sometimes categorized as prophets, witches, and devils (Kaplan and Sadock, page 1432). “Schizophrenia is a serious and lifelong mental disorder that affects one percent of the population worldwide. The onset is occurs mainly in adolescence or early adulthood” (Minzengberg and Yoon, Chapter 10). Though it mainly occurs in adolescence and early adulthood, it is also common in late adulthood.
Schizophrenia is a serious, chronic mental disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality and disturbances of thought, mood, and perception. Schizophrenia is the most common and the most potentially sever and disabling of the psychosis, a term encompassing several severe mental disorders that result in the loss of contact with reality along with major personality derangements. Schizophrenia patients experience delusions, hallucinations and often lose thought process. Schizophrenia affects an estimated one percent of the population in every country of the world. Victims share a range of symptoms that can be devastating to themselves as well as to families and friends. They may have trouble dealing with the most minor everyday stresses and insignificant changes in their surroundings. They may avoid social contact, ignore personal hygiene and behave oddly (Kass, 194). Many people outside the mental health profession believe that schizophrenia refers to a “split personality”. The word “schizophrenia” comes from the Greek schizo, meaning split and phrenia refers to the diaphragm once thought to be the location of a person’s mind and soul. When the word “schizophrenia” was established by European psychiatrists, they meant to describe a shattering, or breakdown, of basic psychological functions. Eugene Bleuler is one of the most influential psychiatrists of his time. He is best known today for his introduction of the term “schizophrenia” to describe the disorder previously known as dementia praecox and for his studies of schizophrenics. The illness can best be described as a collection of particular symptoms that usually fall into four basic categories: formal thought disorder, perception disorder, feeling/emotional disturbance, and behavior disorders (Young, 23). People with schizophrenia describe strange of unrealistic thoughts. Their speech is sometimes hard to follow because of disordered thinking. Phrases seem disconnected, and ideas move from topic to topic with no logical pattern in what is being said. In some cases, individuals with schizophrenia say that they have no idea at all or that their heads seem “empty”. Many schizophrenic patients think they possess extraordinary powers such as x-ray vision or super strength. They may believe that their thoughts are being controlled by others or that everyone knows what they are thinking. These beliefs ar...
Schizophrenia is a common disease; it is a serious disorder of the mind and bran but is actually very treatable it actually ranks in the top 10 causes of disability in developed countries worldwide. Schizophrenia is a completely brain based disorder, that causes hallucinations, and affects multiple brain functions, like the thinking clearly, managing how you feel, making decisions and how to relate to other people. People with schizophrenia also have to face illusions daily, which are very vivid false beliefs, which might cause them to think that people are following them or looking directly at them. Schizophrenia is a horrible disorder for the majority of people who face it, and very can also be enormously costly for families and even society in general. Even though it is treatable there is no current cure for schizophrenia the only thing now is that it must be managed through therapy. There are over fifteen modern medications for that could treat schizophrenia that were developed by different biotechnology and pharmaceutical businesses. The costs from schizophrenia was estimated to be in the range of $61.7 billion, and $22.6 billion direct health care costs in 2011. The most accepted theory of why people have schizophrenia is that it’s result of a simply genetics from the environmental exposures and stress during pregnancy or childhood are what generally causes the disorder to form. Researchers note several key strand genes that when damaged seem to create a pre problem or increase for the risk of schizophrenia. The genes, in mixture with known environmental exponentials are thought to be the reason that it is a result in schizophrenia. The genes that are projected to enhance the risk of obtaining schizophrenia are the Dysbin...
Schizophrenia is undeniably one of the most profound, and adverse psychological disorders known to date. The methodological approach to treating schizophrenia is complex and multi-variant. Much contention arises around the specific treatments and medication models used today in order to lessen the global and individual effects of the disorder. For this reason, I had a rather difficult time finding a method of treatment that seemed to display universal efficacy. Although it is seemingly negligible to find a universal method for treatment (due to the existential reality of science, and the disorder itself), there nonetheless should be an emphasis placed on the treatments that yield the most statistical and clinical significance. Simply put, I
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness affecting around one percent of humanity. Though estimates vary, conservatively, of that one percent, around a third are victims of the most intractable form of the disease. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the effectiveness and efficacy of established modalities for those diagnosed with this treatment resistant schizophrenia.
However, another 25% also show improvement but still require extensive support (Schizophrenia Facts and Statistics, n.d.). Based on this, we can see that a high proportion of patients are able to live normal lives after treatment. Although relapses may occur if the patient stops taking medication after recovery, most of the patients who are aware that they have suffered a relapse will search for assistance to prevent anymore instances of a relapse occurring. In John Nash’s case, he is fully aware of his schizophrenic delusions, which he chooses to actively ignore to prevent any psychotic episodes. All in all, schizophrenia can be troublesome if it is not adequately treated. On the bright side, if it is taken care of, schizophrenic patients are still able to live relatively normal
Treating schizophrenia can be complicated. One of the things that I would recommend first is to look at the client’s medication. He is already taking Risperidone, which treats the symptoms schizophrenia. It seems to be working so I would recommend they continue to monitor his progress. Also, I would recommend individual psychotherapy for the client so he can work on life skills, goal setting, and coping with his diagnosis, etc. Treatment would be focused on improving the client’s quality of life as opposed to curing his schizophrenia. I would also recommend group therapy for the client where he can work on socializing with other clients and dealing with real world problems. As far as the community supports, I would recommend the client
Other than relieving the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, it is imperative to integrate these patients into the society via Cognitive Remediation therapy (CRT). CRT has been defined as a behavioural training-based intervention that aims to improve cognitive processes (attention, memory, executive function, social cognition or metacognition) with the goal of durability and generalisation (Cognitive Remediation Experts Workshop (CREW), Florence, April 2010). Cognitive remediation strategies can be split into two main models: “compensatory” and “restorative” . The “compensatory” treatments try to eradicate or to bypass the specific cognitive deficit, using the patient’s residual cognitive abilities with or without the community
First formally discovered in 1887 by Dr. Kraepelin, the illness has been around for many years and deserves to be recognized by one and taken seriously (The Internet Mental Health Initiative). One can easily go their entire life without knowing the effects of schizophrenia, which is why it is important to be educated on this topic. Schizophrenia is unlike many other illnesses and is known as a real disease. The longer one stays in the dark about not understanding the basics of schizophrenia and the longer one does not have an open mind to it, the longer our community will not be unified and supportive of one
Psychosocial therapy is good for people with schizophrenia who are already stabilized on antipsychotic medication. Psychosocial therapy help these patients deal with the everyday challenges of the illness, such as difficulty with communication, self-care, work, and forming and keeping relationships. The patients learn coping mechanisms that help them address these problems, socialize and live a regular life.
People with schizophrenia experience extreme difficulties in all realms of social functioning. Ordinary daily social situations pose great problems such as speaking with a store clerk, asking for directions, making phone calls, chatting with friends, and selling oneself in a job interview (Blaney & Millon, 2009). Further, many with schizophrenia are unable to keep steady employment. In 2004, Marwaha and Johnson reported that only about 10-20% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were employed (Blaney & Millon, 2009).