Since the beginning of early Confucianism, women in early China suffered oppression. Unfortunately, the religion holds much responsibility for the sexism. Confucius’s answers for the Chinese people’s way of living consisted of sexual discrimination and segregation towards females. Women in China were urged to meet the expectations outlined in Confucian ideals. Such concepts were mainly limited to the men. Thus, Confucianism defined gender expectations. Confucianism stimulated the inequality of women in Chinese culture.
Confucianism and Its Implications in Modern China
Confucianism is a time enduring philosophy that has stood up to invading clans, war, resentment, enforcement and infringement of new philosophies, and eventually, revival. For almost 80 years, up until the late 1970’s, Confucianism and its ideas and values have been all but wiped away from China. Though effort was made to remove Confucianism for good from China by the Communist leader Mao Zedong in 1949, the ideas and values were so deeply embedded into peoples mind and the culture that even suppression could not keep it out of the culture and practices.
The concept of Confucianism has contributed immensely in the forming of Chinese character, behaviour and the way to live, with its main purpose being to achieve harmony which is considered the greatest social value. Confucianism firmly highlights the impression of mercy, social order and fulfilment of responsibilities. The effects of Confucianism had impacted both China and Japan to the extent that the changes are still noticeable to this day.
Every culture is composed of many philosophical ideologies that comprise the ever-changing nature of said nation. Many cultures do not have a monolithic, nor static nature; ideas such as Maoism, Daoism, Christianity, etc., challenge the preexisting notions that are part of a culture. Even though the Chinese government has established a strong strand against Confucianism, it is still a part of the Chinese culture in socio-political, economic, familial, and individual levels. Confucianism is still prevalent though business, education, the Confucian revival, the previous ties China had with Confucianism, and a return to old traditions as a default.
Confucianism is a system of thought based on the teachings of a Chinese man
named Kung Fuzi. Which is latinaized as Confucius, he lived from 551 to 479 b.c.e.
Confucius claimed that he was not original and neither were his teachings, but believed
himself to be a “creative transmitter of wisdom from the past”. He created a moral code
on based on ethics, humanity and love. Confucius philosophies emphasize the ideals of
order and harmony.
A philosopher named Confucius founded Confucianism in China 2,500 years ago. Confucianism is a system of ethical behavior and social responsibility that became the great traditions of the East.1 It played an important role in the evolution in Chinese culture over the centuries. It has influenced near-by countries and had made a mark in the history of religion. There are today over six million people who call themselves Confucianists.
The Propaganda of the Enlightenment: Confucianism in 18th Century European Theater
“Opinion governs the world, and in the end the philosophies govern men’s opinions. ”–Voltaire
It was from the Jesuits that Europe first learned of the philosophy of Confucius. What is most important about understanding how European knowledge of this great philosopher had come to be understood, is to recognize how western missionaries arrived at their celebrated conclusions: they used translations of Chinese traditions to invent the figure of Confucius, who was afterward celebrated by the West as a philosopher, prophet and saint. If one examines the history of the Jesuits’ invention of Confucius and his teaching, it is easy to reconstruct the cultural consequences of the encounter between the West and China; these accounts of Chinese culture were absorbed by European thinkers, who simplified and adjusted Confucian ideals to suit the Western desire for a reformed government—one unbound by the vision of the Catholic church.
A Historical View of the Expansion and Philosophy of Confucianism and Buddhism
Andre Milla (4520100)
American Military University
April 25, 2014
Confucianism and its Expansion
Confucius was one of the first men to have different ideas on how rulers should go about their ruling of people during the Zhou Dynasty. “Its career as a prominent tradition in China began with its adoption by the Han dynasty, and virtually every East Asian regime of the past thousand years or more has endorsed Confucianism as its official ideology.”
The Possibility of Economic Prosperity Under Confucianism
Robert Bruce’s article titled “The Return to Confucius?” asserts that Confucianism may be the answer to Asian economic strife. However, he fails to draw a clear link between economic prosperity and Confucianism, instead leaving the reader to hypothesize using the information given in the article, and, in our case, the Analects.
I believe the message he is trying to convey is that a nation living in harmony is an economically prosperous one. This he supports with references to imperial China such as Matteo Ricci who, as Bruce states, “brought a vision of harmony, equality, scholarship and education, which the Enlightenment of Europe regarded with awe and admiration.” What Bruce neglects to mention is that China had little exposure to the Western world at that point in history and was not greatly influenced by Western culture until relatively recently.
Confucianism and Taoism are religious belief systems which have co-existed in China for well over two centuries. Confucianism deals with social matters and status, while Taoism concerns itself with the search for meaning and being one with nature. I agree with the statement that Chinese philosophies and religious practices are concerned with the creation of harmony as this will be proven in this essay as the similarities and differences between Confucianism and Taoism with regards to their strategies for the creation of harmony will be analysed. Furthermore, the maintenance and restoration of harmony within the individual will be analysed in accordance with the Chinese philosophy of Yin and Yang and Qi through acupuncture. Social and cosmic harmony will also be discussed with regards to Confucianism and Taoism respectively. The conclusion will be based on beliefs of Confucianism and Taoism alike.