Power and Perception of Africa in the film Yeelen As the sun is the giver of life and sometimes the taker, light has come to represent life, death, rebirth, along with both good and evil. In the film Yeelen (1987) it is no surprise that the title carries the most important theme of the movie. Yeelen in English means brightness. Throughout the film, images of light appear, ranging from the most obvious manifestation of the word, the sun, to other, more abstract forms, such as eggs. These images of luminosity highlight the film's major ideas about existence, righteousness, and the circular nature of life. Through the effective use of the camera, lights and colors these concepts are successfully conveyed. One of the first photographic images shown in the film is a burning sacrificial chicken. The chicken is placed on a black background and is very close to the camera. This close up gives a restricted view of the subject and likewise very little space to look away (Kawin 1992:203). The viewer is forced to stare directly at the burning, screeching animal. Although the initial reaction from the western viewer is disgust, after a few moments, the question arises as to why the chicken is being shown so closely. This chicken is a sacrifice to the divine and is also a symbol for mortality. In the flickering of the flames lies the passing of life. It shows that a life can quickly end without warning in a flash of light and it serves as a forewarning that Nianankoro will become a sacrifice later in the film. This bright light also shows the power that can originate from a sacrifice, which signifies the force exuded at Nianankoro's death. Directly following the chicken is a long take of the sun against a barren b... ... middle of paper ... ... traditional African myth in a way that is tangible and entertaining but also includes layers of symbolism which reveal traditional beliefs. For the western audience, "Yeelen enables viewers not just to understand but to experience a traditional African way of seeing the world. Its innovative narrative style captures the Bambara belief in time as circular…always returning to that initial 'brightness' which creates the world" (Diawara 1997:11). Cissé shows the images of this tale in a thoughtful and deliberate way to highlight the importance of the interconnectedness of things, the ambiguity of good and evil and the circle which pulls everything together. Bibliography Kawin, Bruce F. How Movies Work. New York: Macmillan. 1987. Cissé, Souleymane. Yeelen: Mali. 1987. Diawara, Manthia. "Seeing Brightness." California Newsreel Catalog 1997: p.11, 12.
Many readers see the actions of Edna Pontellier in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening as those of a feminist martyr. Edna not only defies her husband and commits adultery, but chooses death over life in a society that will not grant her gender equality. Although this reading may fit, it is misguided in that it ignores a basic aspect of Chopin’s work, the force that causes Mrs. Mallard’s happiness in “The Story of an Hour” upon the news of her husbands death, “that blind persistence in which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature” (Chopin 353). While it is true that when Chopin wrote, women were most likely to be denied the pursuit of individuality, analyzing her work through a strictly gender minded lens limits her impact. The importance of Chopin’s work is the portrayal of characters who are engaged in the pursuit of an idiosyncratic desire. The institution of marriage is one which is most likely to infringe upon individual rights. Thus, it is the basis for many of Chopin’s stories. Therefore, along the way we learn that while Chopin believes that although marriage often stifles individuality, it does not have to. In the work of Chopin we see men and women who will go to any length to pursue a strong enough desire. These characters are often unsure of the nature of their desire. The pursuit of these characters is strengthened when they perceive their desire to be futile. Chopin portrays characters who struggle with the institution of marriage or society’s expectations of them. In most cases, they choose to pursue their individual desire rather than fulfill society’s expectations. Chopin believes that individual desire knows no boundaries, is often uncerta...
654, line 1&2). The sunlight motion suggesting a “balance of upward and downward, rising and falling” (Harris, J. 2004), resplendent in nature and indirectly influences the reader spiritually and emotionally. Jane Kenyon’s Let Evening Come (1990), uses sunlight to project an image of a slow moving late afternoon sun, which will soon slip into the darkness of night. The light through the “chinks in the barn” (Kenyon, 1990, pg. 654, line 2), gives me the sense of an aging body and soul fading into the darkness.
The narrative of Olaudah Equiano entails the story of a journey of a man. He grew up in Eboe province of Africa, a home he describes with an established system of law and marriage comprised of dancers, singers, musicians, and poets. Where manners were mild and luxuries were few. In regards to religion, the people of Eboe believed in one Creator who resided in the sun, and was only present for major life events. Equiano encourages his readers to recognize this in comparison to European cultures, and understand civilized culture “is not confined to feature of colour”. The idea Equiano implied was that just because one is ignorant to another’s culture, doesn’t make them inferior, but rather just untaught, which is what the Africans were, upon
In the 21st century, slavery and the Atlantic Slave Trade are viewed as immoral and quite possibly the most horrifying treatment known to man by society and foreign leaders but, was the same view regarded in the 17th century? The short primary sources, “Nzinga Mbemba: Appeal to the King of Portugal”, and “Captain Thomas Phillips: Buying Slaves in 1639”, enables individuals to identify how foreign leaders, specifically the kings of African nations, conducted the issue of slavery and the slave trade. In the words of Nzinga Mbemba and Captain Phillips, the kings of Congo and Ouidah both knowingly accepted slavery in their country but, had strikingly opposing views concerning the Atlantic Slave Trade; King Mbemba prohibited the trading of slaves whereas the King of Ouidah welcomed slave trading.
In sub-Saharan Africa, thousands of languages, cultures, and geographical regions helped influence our African society. The ways in which we produce our artwork, spiritual ideals, and ritual performances are organic and raw. From the tropical regions of Congo and Ghana, to the arid regions of Mali; I pass through the global gateway into a domain where the Western world lost its roots and artistic imagination and grandeur. Africa appeals most to me for its ability to create a realm where the living, dead, and artistic ideals come into a single unit of tranquil philosophy.
In recent times our right to privacy has been under fire, particularly in the workplace. With the fear of terrorists in today's world, we have been willing to sacrifice some of our individual rights for the rights of a society as a whole. A majority of these changes have taken place since September 11, 2001, in an attempt to prevent future terrorist attacks. New legislation, such as the USA Patriot Act, which decreases the limitations on the federal government's ability to monitor people, has been created for this reason. Although new legislation may be instrumental in the defense of our national security, we must take a strong look at their effect and the effect of decreased privacy in the workplace. Advances in technology, coupled with new legislation, has had a serious toll on our privacy especially at work. It is now possible to monitor an employee's keystrokes on the computer to how much time a day is spent on bathroom breaks. It is imperative for us to take a stand against these violations to our rights
How much information should be collected on employees and prospective employees? Collecting information presents risks that employers will be faced with when employees commit torts outside the scope of their jobs. Also, not collecting the proper information could result in risks depending on the case. These questions will be analyzed based on collected data and employer actual or constructive knowledge. In order to precisely elaborate about the risk and such, I will look at the employee monitoring at work, Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, and respondeat superior.
In conclusion whether employees should have the right to privacy in the workplace or not, is an issue. But there are many arguments in favor of employee privacy, but there are also strong reasons why an organization simply cannot grant this right to its workers. These reasons consist of: financial loss and information security. The use of tracking software in systems is ethical because this serves the greater good in respect to the general public. The principle that needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few over one is the cornerstone of the ethics that rule this society. (Yerby (“Nine theories of ethics that rule the world”))
Video surveillance has existed in the work place since the invention of the television. Video surveillance cameras come in all shapes and sizes, from the obvious ones to some that are small as a dime. Many employers purchase such devices to capture employees and customers who commit theft and fraud, or any other illegal activity. The increase of technology in electronic monitoring is now able to transfer images from a camera to a computer where the employer is able to zoom in and make a positive identity of the employee or customer who is committing an illegal act.
Africa’s geography put them at a great disadvantage over the Europeans, which eventually allowed the Europeans to colonize Africa with ease. The geography of Africa is wildly different than that of Europe’s. Crops in Europe were very suitable for farming, and their native animals could be domesticated easily. Because of this, farming in Europe didn’t take very much effort, and surpluses of food could develop at a quick rate. These surpluses allowed specialists to form. Specialists devoted all of their time to developing new and advanced technology, instead of farming. With the formation of this advanced technology, the Europeans quickly gained an advantage over the rest of the world. The opposite was true in Africa. Africa’s crops were difficult to grow, and their animals were nearly impossible to domesticate. Because of this, the Africans had to work much harder than the Europeans just to produce enough food to survive. Specialists couldn’t form in African society because everyone was devoted to farming. This absence of specialists led to a lack of advanced technology, which caused Africa to slowly fall behind the rest of the world. Africa eventually became so vulnerable, that when Europe came along to colonize the continent with the technology that they had formed, Africa couldn’t do a thing to stop them.
One example of the African centered theories would be Akbar's (1997) theory. According to the textbook African American Psychology, this theory was about an emphasis on “the African cultural emphasis on affective orientation including caring, empathy, and cooperative efforts as significant sources of behavioral motivation” (Heisser Metoyer, p. 24). In my opinion, this theory right here is what may be needed for today’s world. In todays society we see that there are problems when it comes to African Americans and violence. Some of it is in the media. An example of some of these would be violence with other individuals of the same race, or even violence with other races, which from my experience is shown more in the media. I believe with this theory by Akbar, if it were to
As twilight settled upon the plains fuel is added to a large bonfire causing sparks to rise high into the early evening sky as the dancers began to sway and chant to the rhythm of the drums their feet stomped upon the earth as the call to the ancestors increased in tempo recalling those who have gone on before as the descendants regale in the meaning of their dance upon this special night. The dance has remained the same the players have changed in appearance, costume, and even nationality, but the religious and historical significance remains true to the Ancients that first trod upon the earth of Africa continuously strengthening the bond of the past to the implications of a united historical religion inseparable from the past and only past down via the oral histories, rituals, and festivals. Therefore, to study the history of Africa and her peoples one must study her religions because within the festivals and rituals is found the origins of people often misunderstood and exploited.
The Struggle for Liberation of Frantz Fanon’s: An Example of Africa Historically, colonialism effected the cultural character of undeveloped nations such as India, African countries, etc. The notion "national culture" is both a central organizing category in the shaping of politic, economic and cultural production, and so colonialism remade some parts of the world by the power of domination. For this reason, Frantz Fanon’s work was a milestone in African history because he was the first spark of the struggle for the liberation of their citizens from colonialist goals and movements in African lands such as Gandhi in India or Sukarno in The Netherlands.