Some currents carry warm water from the tropical and subtropical regions toward the poles, whil... ... middle of paper ... ... are many factors that contribute to the weather and climate but it is the ocean along with the sun that is responsible for creating such drastic weather changes. The hydrologic cycle is the never ending circulation that takes water from the ocean to atmosphere and back to the ocean. The ocean is responsible for making it rain, snow, hail or sleet by creating clouds from evaporation caused by the heat of the sun. Works Cited Herring, David. “Ocean and Climate Fact Sheet.” Earth Observatory.
Horizontal and vertical ocean currents Ocean currents are horizontal or vertical movement of both surface and deep water throughout the world’s oceans (Briney, n.d.). The primary generating forces are wind and differences in water density caused by variations in temperature and salinity. Currents generated by these forces are modified by factors such as the depth of the water, ocean floor topography and deflection by the rotation of the Earth. Horizontal currents are wind driven, fast moving and carries small amount of water; while, vertical currents are slow moving, density driven and carries large bodies of water. In this paper I will describe horizontal and vertical currents, their importance and some of the tools used to measure ocean currents.
The two major deep-water masses are the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) and the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The AABW forms on the surface of the Weddell Sea near the Antarctic coast, South of South America. The NADW forms in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas in the North Atlantic Ocean. (Gornitz 944; Garrison 254) Surface ocean currents are largely caused by wind movements. The surface currents can be measured by several methods, two of which, namely the Eulerian method and the Lagrangian method are discussed as follows: The Eulerian method is also called the flow method.
Fluid flow in oceans is turbulent, with eddy like motions often dominated by vortices. The forces such as Coriolis, wind stress, viscosity, Earth's gravitational force, tides and local reduced gravity interacts with fluid flow constantly leading to dissipation causing turbulence like characteristics. Mixing of water masses at different geopotential was the notion provided by Sandstrom (1916) to explain the ocean circulation. His notion was based on the second law of thermodynamics and postulates that for a steady, closed and buoyancy driven circulation heating source should be positioned at a lower geopotential than the cooling source (Huang, 1999). Huang (1999) shows the four idealized stages of Sandstrom's notion (Figure 1).
His second hypothesis was that if iron did direct the yield in high nutrient, low chlorophyll waters and also absorb organic carbon into the depths of the ocean through the use of the biological pump then this could explain the observations made through ice cores he had collected. The ice cores had shown that carbon had a direct relationship with the climatic changes of the planet. Martin proposed, using his hypotheses, that fertilizing the ocean with iron in these HNLC waters could export atmospheric carbon dioxide into the oceanic sediment and seize it for many years. The Carbon Cycle in reference to the fertilization of the ocean can be simply explained by understanding that phytoplankton uses the carbon dioxide to grow. Carbon dioxide reaches the ocean surface and is photosynthesized by the phytoplankton which in turn grows into larger blooms.
Thermohaline circulation produces great vertical currents' hat flow from the surface to the ocean bottom and back. The currents largely result from differences in water temperature and salinity. The currents move sluggishly from the polar regions, along the sea floor, and back to the surface. In the polar regions, The surface waters become colder and saltier. Being colder and saltier makes these waters heavier, and they gradually flow back toward the surface and replace the surface waters that sink.
This paper will examine the components of the water cycle and the impacts that it takes from climate change. The hydrologic cycle consists of different parts. The biggest and the main water supply on Earth is the ocean. The ocean holds 97% of all water on Earth (textbook). From the ocean and other large bodies of water, water continues to move through the atmosphere by evaporation (textbook).
A handy thing if you have to haul up a fish that is 50kg or more from the bottom of the ocean. This reel works by turning the spindle while the line feeder remains stationary. The drag works by pushing a plate into the spindle. There is a knob on the side that allows you to increase the pressure on the plate. When setting your drag you must take into account more then line strength.
(Crosta et al, 2007) Sea-ice is able to affect the global thermohaline circulation and influence deep water formation. Deep water formation is influence by sea ice through injection of brine or salts during freezing events in the winter season and freshwater formation(melting) during summer-spring seasons. (Bryan et al, 1975) Sea-ice favours diatoms over organic-walled micro-organisms that release large of carbon to the sea-floor. Thus it can also be concluded that sea-ice also influces the primary and export productivity of the ocean. (Vaillencourt et al, 2003) This was also statement was also evident in both Crosta et al, 2007 and Gersonde and Zielinski, 2000.