Motivation At Work

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To commence, this essay will explore how the different aspects of expectancy theory and goal theory explain motivation within the workplace. Vroom and Locke crafted these theories to understand the deeper significance of motivation. This analysis will not only encompass the juxtaposing concepts, but also the resemblance of the philosophies put in place by the academics. These models are known as process theories of motivation, emphasising the immediate connection the two engage as they both contain decision-making responsibilities. The question being asked is to what extent can the ideas being used justify motivation at work. Victor Harold Vroom developed the first expectancy theory of work motivation. This theory involves three principles, valence, instrumentality, and expectancy (Vroom, 1964). Valence is the value that is put on the anticipated result; a personal aim would be a paradigm of valence. Instrumentality is the belief that success will lead to the preferred product. Lastly, expectancy is the belief that accomplishment is possible. In comparison, Edwin Locke formulated the goal theory. The methodology behind this is performance related; Locke claims that ‘challenging goals, specific goals, participation and knowledge of results’ (Locke and Latham, 1990) all play a part in producing a higher performance level. Vroom’s expectancy theory has several advantages and disadvantages. When reviewing the system one can identify the beneficial factors which influence motivation. An advantage of the universally established theory for describing an individual’s managerial manner is that it is supported by on-going research that concerns the decision-making hypotheses suggested by the theory (, 2012). Howeve... ... middle of paper ... ...A. and Buchanan, D.A. (2013) Organizational Behaviour, 8th edition, Harlow: Pearson. Jane Sturges (2013). Motivation, lecture notes distributed in the topic 4SSMN 134: Work, Organisations and Society. King's College London, London on 7th October 2013. (2012) Expectancy Theory of Motivation, 5 October, [Online], Available: [7 November 2013]. Locke, E.A. and Latham, G.P. (1990) A theory of goal setting & task performance., Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. PSU Penn State University (2012). Goal Setting Theory [online]. Available from: . [Accessed 9th November 2013]. Reilly, Peter. (2003) The Link Between Pay And Performance. IES. Vroom, V.H. (1964) Work And Motivation, Oxford: Wiley.

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